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Belmont, MA, United States

Peteet J.R.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Rodriguez V.B.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Herschkopf M.D.,Massachusetts General Hospital | McCarthy A.,Rutgers University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Religion and Health | Year: 2016

While past research indicates that mental health professionals are less religious than the public they serve, little is known about the implications of therapists’ world views for their practice. In this study, approximately 50 therapists completed surveys that assessed self-identification in relation to spirituality, religion, and/or world view; how relevant they considered their patients’ and their own world views; and responses to clinical vignettes involving issues arising in treatment. While a minority considered themselves religious, a majority indicated that they considered themselves moderately or very spiritual. When asked how they would respond to a series of clinical vignettes involving topics such as assisted suicide and encouraging the use of spiritual resources, responses varied significantly by world view. Respondents endorsed several factors limiting the integration of religion/spiritualities/world views into their clinical work. These data raise questions about how to further explore the clinical relevance of the therapist’s world view. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

Tong Y.,Brain Imaging Center | Tong Y.,Harvard University | Lindsey K.P.,Harvard University | Lindsey K.P.,Behavioral Psychopharmacology Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2011

The blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are contaminated with noise from various physiological processes, such as spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs), respiration, and cardiac pulsation. These processes are coupled to the BOLD signal by different mechanisms, and represent variations with very different frequency content; however, because of the low sampling rate of fMRI, these signals are generally not separable by frequency, as the cardiac and respiratory waveforms alias into the LFO band. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics of the individual noise processes by conducting concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and fMRI studies on six subjects during a resting state acquisition. Three time series corresponding to LFO, respiration, and cardiac pulsation were extracted by frequency from the NIRS signal (which has sufficient temporal resolution to critically sample the cardiac waveform) and used as regressors in a BOLD fMRI analysis. Our results suggest that LFO and cardiac signals modulate the BOLD signal independently through the circulatory system. The spatiotemporal evolution of the LFO signal in the BOLD data correlates with the global cerebral blood flow. Near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to partition these contributing factors and independently determine their contribution to the BOLD signal. © 2011 ISCBFM All rights reserved. Source

Lindsey K.P.,Behavioral Psychopharmacology Laboratory | Lindsey K.P.,Brain Imaging Center | Lindsey K.P.,Harvard University | Bracken B.K.,Behavioral Psychopharmacology Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2013

Despite the well-known adverse health consequences of smoking, approximately 20% of US adults smoke tobacco cigarettes. Much of the research on smoking reinforcement and the maintenance of tobacco smoking behavior has focused on nicotine; however, a number of other non-nicotine factors are likely to influence the reinforcing effects of smoked tobacco. A growing number of studies suggest that non-nicotine factors, through many pairings with nicotine, are partially responsible for the reinforcing effect of smoking. Additionally, both clinical studies and preclinical advances in our understanding of nicotinic receptor regulation suggest that abstinence from smoking may influence smoking reinforcement. These experiments were conducted for 2 reasons: to validate a MRI-compatible cigarette smoking device; and to simultaneously investigate the impact of nicotine, smoking-associated conditioned reinforcers, and smoking abstinence state on subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement. Participants smoked nicotine and placebo cigarettes through an fMRI compatible device in an overnight-abstinent state or in a nonabstinent state, after having smoked a cigarette 25 minutes prior. Outcome measures were within-subject changes in physiology and subjective ratings of craving and drug effect during the smoking of nicotine or placebo cigarettes on different days in both abstinence states. Cigarette type (nicotine vs. placebo) had a significant effect on positive subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement ("High", "Like Drug", "Feel Drug"; nicotine > placebo). In contrast, abstinence state was found to have significant effects on both positive and negative ratings of smoking reinforcement ("Crave", "Anxiety", "Irritability"; abstinence > nonabstinence). Interaction effects between abstinence and nicotine provide clues about the importance of neuroadaptive mechanisms operating in dependence, as well as the impact of conditioned reinforcement on subjective ratings of smoking-induced high. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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