Beggars Knoll

Newtown, United Kingdom

Beggars Knoll

Newtown, United Kingdom
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Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Davenport J.,University College Cork | Cottrell D.M.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Harman L.,University College Cork | And 3 more authors.
Regional Studies in Marine Science | Year: 2017

The benthos of Lough Hyne (Europe's first marine reserve) in SW Ireland has changed dramatically in the past decade with declining invertebrate communities and proliferating ephemeral macroalgae. In summer 2011 and 2012, we measured dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on shallow subtidal rocky shores of the lough and recorded both benthic hypoxia (<2 mg O2  L−1) and hyperoxia (∼10–16 mg O2  L−1). In late summer 2013, we systematically characterized the spatial and temporal patterns of DO in the lough seawater. Daytime DO levels were hyperoxic either at or near the rocky shore, declined with increased distance for the first 5 m offshore, then stabilized at normoxic levels (∼8 mg O2  L−1). DO levels above and below rocks were variable and often showed large differences (max. difference of 15.6 mg O2  L−1), particularly at rocky shore sites with low current flow. At night, the DO in shallow water declined, becoming hypoxic to anoxic during calm weather. These extreme oxygen fluctuations (i) are amongst the first records to report severe conditions within Irish coastal waters and (ii) could contribute to the known recent decline in benthic invertebrate diversity within the marine reserve. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Pilling G.M.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll | Miles A.,Farm Close
Botanica Marina | Year: 2011

Long-term annual monitoring of rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal shores of an Irish sea lough (1990-2010) documented major regime shifts in the past decade. When population densities of the purple urchin Paracentrotus lividus plummeted in Lough Hyne Marine Reserve in southwestern Ireland, the warm-water fucalean alga Cystoseira foeniculacea and ephemeral algae proliferated shortly after. We discuss the possible influences of release from herbivory and climate change on this algal proliferation, which blanketed the benthos. Smothering of the benthos led to high levels of shallow subtidal anoxia. Furthermore, the invasive fucalean alga Sargassum muticum has made repeated incursions into the reserve. Although being reduced by persistent eradication efforts (2003-2011), Sargassum is spreading within the lough. Limited seawater flushing and propagule dispersal within the lough and eutrophication in coastal waters may have contributed to community-level changes. Whether the regime change is cyclical (contingent on re-establishment of urchins within the lough and continued eradication of S. muticum) or irreversible (the result of critical transitions) remains unclear. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston.

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Dlouhy-Massengale B.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Stirling P.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | Pilling G.M.,Beggars Knoll
Botanica Marina | Year: 2013

Distributions of brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae: Fucales, Laminariales and Tilopteridales) were surveyed in 2011 in Europe's first marine reserve, Lough Hyne in SW Ireland, and compared with distributions from three historical surveys (1930, 1955 and 1980). The most salient phycological differences were the incursion of the low intertidal and shallow subtidal species Fucus serratus, Himanthalia elongata and Saccharina latissima into the north basin of the marine reserve after the recent mass mortality of the purple urchin (Paracentrotus lividus). Monitoring surveys (1990-2012) at ten sites in the lough indicated that populations of S. latissima peaked in 1994, abruptly crashed in 1996 and then slowly recovered. As well as documenting the expansion of kelp, our annual, whole-lough snorkel surveys (2004-2012) demonstrated the recent proliferation of the introduced Sargassum muticum and native Cystoseira foeniculacea. Although the causal role of top-down factors (fishing ban and/or urchin population crash), bottom-up factors (nutrient enhancement), climatic variables (warming vs. episodic cooling) and pathogens (urchin and algal) is being widely debated, decadal-scale and inter-Annual changes are clearly detectable and most consistent with a release from herbivory within the marine protected area.

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Ferrenburg L.S.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Resk H.M.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | And 4 more authors.
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2016

Alcyonacean octocorals are anthozoans which are found in many coastal benthic habitats, where they can be sensitive to environmental and/or anthropogenic stress. As part of a two-decade monitoring study of Lough Hyne (Europe’s first marine reserve and Ireland’s only one), we documented benthic communities at rocky-shore sites. As a fully marine, semi-enclosed, tidal ‘lake’ connected to the Atlantic Ocean via tidal rapids, Lough Hyne has long been noted for its high species and habitat diversity. One of the noteworthy guilds we report here was the alcyonacean octocorals: (1) the soft coral Alcyonium hibernicum under shallow subtidal rocks at monitoring sites in the lough from 2002 to 2015 and (2) the first known records (2013 to present) of the red soft coral A. glomeratum inside the lough (above the rapids). Furthermore, in August/September 2014 and 2015, we rediscovered the stoloniferous octocoral Sarcodictyon catenatum, last reported in the lough in the 1930s. We documented the distribution and abundance of these species in shallow subtidal areas of the lough as a baseline in the face of rapidly degrading conditions due to extreme oxygen fluctuations from eutrophication. © 2016 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Hawkins S.J.,UK National Oceanography Center | Hawkins S.J.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Mieszkowska N.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Firth L.B.,UK National Oceanography Center | And 9 more authors.
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2016

Temperate reefs are superb tractable systems for testing hypotheses in ecology and evolutionary biology. Accordingly there is a rich history of research stretching back over 100 years, which has made major contributions to general ecological and evolutionary theory as well as providing better understanding of how littoral systems work by linking pattern with process. A brief resumé of the history of temperate reef ecology is provided to celebrate this rich heritage. As a community, temperate reef ecologists generally do well designed experiments and test well formulated hypotheses. Increasingly large datasets are being collected, collated and subjected to complex meta-analyses and used for modelling. These datasets do not happen spontaneously - the burgeoning subject of macroecology is possible only because of the efforts of dedicated natural historians whether it be observing birds, butterflies, or barnacles. High-quality natural history and old-fashioned field craft enable surveys or experiments to be stratified (i.e. replicates are replicates and not a random bit of rock) and lead to the generation of more insightful hypotheses. Modern molecular approaches have led to the discovery of cryptic species and provided phylogeographical insights, but natural history is still required to identify species in the field. We advocate a blend of modern approaches with old school skills and a fondness for temperate reefs in all their splendour. © CSIRO 2016.

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll | Pilling G.,British Petroleum | Dlouhy-Massengale B.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2013

The warm-water nemertean species Paradrepanophorus crassus, described from Mediterranean shores, was first recorded in Lough Hyne, County Cork, Ireland in 1931 by Renouf. This large nemertean that forms membranous tubes under low intertidal to shallow subtidal rocks has increased in frequency, particularly from 2009 to 2012 with peak values of 0.26 specimens per metre of shoreline. Eggs were noted within the membranous tube of one specimen collected in June 2012. Furthermore, based on digital photographs of specimens, the striped nemertean species Punnettia splendida was also noted in September 2011; this is a new species record for Lough Hyne. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2013.

Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Pilling G.M.,British Petroleum | Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll
American Malacological Bulletin | Year: 2012

Changes in the distributional ranges of marine indicator species have been used to support hypotheses of climate change on NE Atlantic shores. One such indicator species, Osilinus lineatus (da Costa, 1778) (a trochid gastropod), recently colonized the Lough Hyne Marine Reserve in SW Ireland and spread around the lough shores in the last two decades. The incursion and local spread of O. lineatus was documented during annual intertidal community surveys of the lough from 1994 to 2010. This species is presently an abundant member of the lough's biota. Although the tidal rapids connecting the lough to the open ocean may have acted as a partial barrier to incursion, substantial populations of the trochid have been noted within the lough from 2003 to the present. Climate change may have enabled this primarily Lusitanien species to penetrate and flourish in the lough. However, based on environmental variables measured and other species surveyed, changes in the semi-enclosed lough may be more complex.

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll
Biology and Environment | Year: 2013

Surveys of non-indigenous species (NIS) typically concentrate on the establishment and expansion phases of population dynamics. Our study, in contrast, investigated the status of an invader that has declined to low levels throughout much of the British Isles. The green macroalga Codium fragile ssp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot appeared in the British Isles in the 1800s and probably entered Lough Hyne, County Cork, Ireland in the 1930s. It proliferated on Irish shores in the 1940s to 1970s, but has declined to low levels in the region. Broad-scale surveys in County Cork, SW Ireland (2002-2005) and extensive surveys (2001-2011) within Lough Hyne indicate that the introduced alga has declined substantially since earlier decades. These results are consistent with other studies on NE Atlantic shores indicating a long-term decline. © Royal Irish Academy.

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