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Newtown, United Kingdom

Hawkins S.J.,UK National Oceanography Center | Hawkins S.J.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Mieszkowska N.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Firth L.B.,UK National Oceanography Center | And 9 more authors.
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2016

Temperate reefs are superb tractable systems for testing hypotheses in ecology and evolutionary biology. Accordingly there is a rich history of research stretching back over 100 years, which has made major contributions to general ecological and evolutionary theory as well as providing better understanding of how littoral systems work by linking pattern with process. A brief resumé of the history of temperate reef ecology is provided to celebrate this rich heritage. As a community, temperate reef ecologists generally do well designed experiments and test well formulated hypotheses. Increasingly large datasets are being collected, collated and subjected to complex meta-analyses and used for modelling. These datasets do not happen spontaneously - the burgeoning subject of macroecology is possible only because of the efforts of dedicated natural historians whether it be observing birds, butterflies, or barnacles. High-quality natural history and old-fashioned field craft enable surveys or experiments to be stratified (i.e. replicates are replicates and not a random bit of rock) and lead to the generation of more insightful hypotheses. Modern molecular approaches have led to the discovery of cryptic species and provided phylogeographical insights, but natural history is still required to identify species in the field. We advocate a blend of modern approaches with old school skills and a fondness for temperate reefs in all their splendour. © CSIRO 2016. Source

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Pilling G.M.,Secretariat of the Pacific Community | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll | Miles A.,Farm Close
Botanica Marina | Year: 2011

Long-term annual monitoring of rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal shores of an Irish sea lough (1990-2010) documented major regime shifts in the past decade. When population densities of the purple urchin Paracentrotus lividus plummeted in Lough Hyne Marine Reserve in southwestern Ireland, the warm-water fucalean alga Cystoseira foeniculacea and ephemeral algae proliferated shortly after. We discuss the possible influences of release from herbivory and climate change on this algal proliferation, which blanketed the benthos. Smothering of the benthos led to high levels of shallow subtidal anoxia. Furthermore, the invasive fucalean alga Sargassum muticum has made repeated incursions into the reserve. Although being reduced by persistent eradication efforts (2003-2011), Sargassum is spreading within the lough. Limited seawater flushing and propagule dispersal within the lough and eutrophication in coastal waters may have contributed to community-level changes. Whether the regime change is cyclical (contingent on re-establishment of urchins within the lough and continued eradication of S. muticum) or irreversible (the result of critical transitions) remains unclear. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. Source

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll
Biology and Environment | Year: 2013

Surveys of non-indigenous species (NIS) typically concentrate on the establishment and expansion phases of population dynamics. Our study, in contrast, investigated the status of an invader that has declined to low levels throughout much of the British Isles. The green macroalga Codium fragile ssp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot appeared in the British Isles in the 1800s and probably entered Lough Hyne, County Cork, Ireland in the 1930s. It proliferated on Irish shores in the 1940s to 1970s, but has declined to low levels in the region. Broad-scale surveys in County Cork, SW Ireland (2002-2005) and extensive surveys (2001-2011) within Lough Hyne indicate that the introduced alga has declined substantially since earlier decades. These results are consistent with other studies on NE Atlantic shores indicating a long-term decline. © Royal Irish Academy. Source

Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Pilling G.M.,British Petroleum | Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll
American Malacological Bulletin | Year: 2012

Changes in the distributional ranges of marine indicator species have been used to support hypotheses of climate change on NE Atlantic shores. One such indicator species, Osilinus lineatus (da Costa, 1778) (a trochid gastropod), recently colonized the Lough Hyne Marine Reserve in SW Ireland and spread around the lough shores in the last two decades. The incursion and local spread of O. lineatus was documented during annual intertidal community surveys of the lough from 1994 to 2010. This species is presently an abundant member of the lough's biota. Although the tidal rapids connecting the lough to the open ocean may have acted as a partial barrier to incursion, substantial populations of the trochid have been noted within the lough from 2003 to the present. Climate change may have enabled this primarily Lusitanien species to penetrate and flourish in the lough. However, based on environmental variables measured and other species surveyed, changes in the semi-enclosed lough may be more complex. Source

Trowbridge C.D.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology | Little C.,Beggars Knoll | Stirling P.,Beggars Knoll | Pilling G.,British Petroleum | Dlouhy-Massengale B.,Oregon Institute of Marine Biology
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2013

The warm-water nemertean species Paradrepanophorus crassus, described from Mediterranean shores, was first recorded in Lough Hyne, County Cork, Ireland in 1931 by Renouf. This large nemertean that forms membranous tubes under low intertidal to shallow subtidal rocks has increased in frequency, particularly from 2009 to 2012 with peak values of 0.26 specimens per metre of shoreline. Eggs were noted within the membranous tube of one specimen collected in June 2012. Furthermore, based on digital photographs of specimens, the striped nemertean species Punnettia splendida was also noted in September 2011; this is a new species record for Lough Hyne. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2013. Source

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