Beef Cattle Research Institute

Pasuruan, Indonesia

Beef Cattle Research Institute

Pasuruan, Indonesia
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Quigley S.P.,University of Queensland | Dahlanuddin,University of Mataram | Marsetyo,Tadulako University | Pamungkas D.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

A series of liveweight gain (LWG), feed and water intake and digestibility experiments were conducted across eastern Indonesia. Thirty-six datasets of LWG, feed and water intake, and diet characteristics were used to determine the nutritional requirements of growing Bali cattle fed a wide range of diets that varied in crude protein content and apparent dry matter digestibility. Regression of average daily LWG against estimated metabolisable energy (ME) intake was conducted, and the ME requirements for maintenance of liveweight (LW, 0 kg/day) and LWG were determined. It was estimated that the ME required to maintain LW of this class of Bali cattle, across the range of diets evaluated, was 0.47 MJ ME/kg LW0.75.day and that 34 MJ ME was required for each kg LWG, or 29 g LWG/MJ ME. The relationship between estimated ME intake and LWG was not affected by the crude protein content of the diet. The data demonstrate that ME requirements for maintenance of LW of Bali cattle are comparable with values for other cattle species, but that this class of Bali cattle is generally less efficient in the use of ME for LWG across the range of diets evaluated. © CSIRO 2014.


Antari R.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Syahniar T.M.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Mayberry D.E.,CSIRO | Marsetyo,Tadulako University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

The aim of this research was to compare different feeding strategies to increase the weight and body condition score (BCS) of Ongole (Bos indicus) and Bali (Bos javanicus) cows kept by smallholder farmers in Indonesia. Thirty mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating Ongole and Bali cows were allocated to one of three treatment groups in a randomised block design, with five cows of each breed per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 2-week adaptation period and 24-week experimental period. In Weeks 1-17 cows were offered one of three diets; rice straw ad libitum plus gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) at 3 g DM/kg W.day (RSG3), rice straw at 10 g DM/kg W.day plus gliricidia at 10 g DM/kg W.day, or elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ad libitum. During Weeks 18-24 the cows previously fed the RSG3 diet were offered rice straw ad libitum plus rice bran at 10 g DM/kg W.day. There was no change to diets of the other groups. Feeding untreated rice straw plus gliricidia or rice bran only provided enough metabolisable energy for maintenance of both breeds. Ongole and Bali cows consuming elephant grass gained weight at 0.25 and 0.33 kg/day, respectively. However, even at these higher growth rates it would still take ∼4-6 months for cows to gain 1 BCS unit (1-5 scale). Maintaining a good BCS would be a better management strategy. © CSIRO 2014.


Antari R.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Ningrum G.P.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Mayberry D.E.,CSIRO | Marsetyo,Tadulako University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

The aim of this experiment was to test the effectiveness of two diets in increasing liveweight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) of Brahman cows in Indonesia. Diets were based on rice straw, with additional energy and nitrogen (N) provided in the form of onggok (a cassava by-product) plus urea or a tree legume. Thirty mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating Brahman crossbred cows (288 kg LW, BCS 2/5) were allocated to one of two treatment groups. Cows were kept in individual pens for 21 weeks and offered one of two diets; (1) urea-supplemented rice straw ad libitum plus 10 g onggok DM/kg LW.day, or (2) untreated rice straw ad libitum plus 5 g onggok DM/kg LW.day and 5 g Gliricidia sepium DM/kg LW.day. The urea supplement provided no advantages over using locally available N sources such as gliricidia, with both supplement types meeting the rumen-degradable N requirements of the cows. Cows on both diets gained weight at a similar rate (0.19 kg/day) for the first 15 weeks of the experiment. Liveweight gain in Weeks 16-21 was only 0.04 kg/day, despite an increase in total feed intake and energy content of the diets compared with Weeks 1-15. Liveweight of cows stabilised during Weeks 16-21 at 304 kg, BCS 2.2. While our results demonstrate that Brahman cows can maintain LW on rice straw-based diets, they may not be able to maintain a BCS sufficient for good reproduction rates (i.e. BCS 3 or higher on 1-5 scale). Better quality diets containing higher levels of energy are required for cows to gain and maintain a suitable BCS. © CSIRO 2014.


Antari R.,University of Queensland | Antari R.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Ningrum G.P.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Pamungkas D.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

The aim of this experiment was to assess the suitability of different cattle breeds for existing smallholder fattening systems based on local forages and crop residues. in Indonesia. We compared the growth rates and feed conversion rate of Ongole (Bos indicus), Limousin (Bos taurus)-Ongole and Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls fed elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), which is of similar quality to diets currently fed by smallholder farmers. The experiment was conducted at the Beef Cattle Research Institute, Grati, East Java. Ten bulls (171 ± 4 kg liveweight, 1.2 ± 0.7 years old) of each breed were fed elephant grass ad libitum for 16 weeks. Nutritive value of elephant grass was 7.4% crude protein, 69% neutral detergent fibre, and 62% organic matter digestibility. Limousin-Ongole bulls had the highest liveweight gain (0.26 kg/day) and best feed conversion rate (16 kg DM feed intake/kg liveweight gain). The Brahman bulls had the lowest liveweight gain (0.11 kg/d) and highest conversion rate (34 kg DM feed intake/kg liveweight gain). Differences in the age, liveweight and condition of the bulls at the start of the experiment had a bigger impact on liveweight gain and feed conversion rate than breed. However, these differences reflect the reality of Indonesian smallholder fattening systems. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Syahniar T.M.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Antari R.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Pamungkas D.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Marsetyo,Tadulako University | And 2 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2012

Improving the productivity and profitability of smallholder cattle enterprises in Indonesia requires greater and more efficient utilisation of underutilised feed resources such as rice straw. The experiment tested the hypothesis that an Ongole cow with low energy requirements can maintain weight (W) on a rice straw-based diet with the addition of a small amount of tree legumes. Thirty-two Ongole cross (Bos indicus) cows were allocated to one of four treatments in a randomised block design with eight cows per treatment. Cows were offered untreated rice straw ad libitum with four levels of tree legumes (0, 11, 21, and 42 g DM/kg W0.75.day) for 20 weeks. Feed intake was determined daily and liveweight was measured every second week. There was no difference in total feed intake between the treatment groups (P>0.05). Intake of tree legumes was higher when more was offered (P<0.05), but cows did not consume all of the legumes offered to them. The inclusion of tree legumes in the diet had no effect on organic matter digestibility, ME content of the diet, liveweight gain or estimated energy balance of the cows (P>0.05). Rice straw alone contained insufficient ME and rumen-degradable N to meet the maintenance requirements of the cows. From the regression relating liveweight change and ME intake for all cows across all diets, the inclusion of tree legumes in the diet at ∼12 g DM/kg W0.75.day or 2.8 g DM/kg W.day was enough to meet the energy requirements for maintenance of Ongole cows fed rice straw ad libitum. © 2012 CSIRO.


Mayberry D.E.,CSIRO | Syahniar T.M.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Antari R.,Beef Cattle Research Institute | Antari R.,University of Queensland | And 4 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

We evaluated the precision and accuracy of equations from the Australian Ruminant Feeding Standards (ARFS) and the Large Ruminant Nutrition System (LRNS) in predicting the performance of Ongole (Bos indicus) cattle under Indonesian conditions. A database was constructed using information from 121 cattle in five different pen-feeding experiments. Cattle included mature cows and growing bulls, and they were fed a range of diets commonly used by Indonesian farmers. We compared observed and predicted dry matter intake and daily liveweight gain. Model predictions were evaluated for precision and accuracy using mean bias, mean square prediction error and regression of observed against predicted values. Across all experiments, the LRNS provided the better estimates of intake and growth. While both models included animal age, sex, weight and body condition score, the LRNS provided better estimates of metabolisable energy requirements for maintenance of liveweight, feed quality and efficiency of energy utilisation. The LRNS model also better accounted for environmental conditions by including correction factors for minimum night temperature and relative humidity, in addition to average daily temperatures. Based on our results, the LRNS model appears suitable for use in Indonesian beef-production systems. © CSIRO 2014.

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