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Zhang Y.-N.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang Y.-N.,Risk Assessment Laboratory for Bee Products Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture | Chen L.-Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen L.-Z.,Risk Assessment Laboratory for Bee Products Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture | And 9 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis

At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed?with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient?including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the?spectrum?scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey, The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey. © 2015, Science Press. All right reserved. Source

Xue X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xue X.,Risk Assessment Laboratory for Bee Products Quality | Xue X.,China Agricultural University | Wang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The determination of honey authenticity is of importance to ensure its quality and safety. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect adulterated honey. A simple, rapid, and effective HPLC-DAD method was developed to detect honey adulteration by rice syrup, using a characteristic compound from rice syrup, which is presently difficult to detect by current analytical methods. The characteristic compound was identified as 2-acetylfuran-3- glucopyranoside (AFGP) by MS and NMR. Based on HPLC analyses, the average concentration of AFGP was 92 ± 60 mg/kg in rice syrup. However, AFGP was not detected in any of the natural honey samples, so it could be used as a marker for the detection of honey adulteration by rice syrup. The developed method enabled a rapid detection of honey samples adulterated with 10% rice syrup. Using the developed method, 16 out of 186 honey samples from some markets were found to be adulterated with rice syrup. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Zhou J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou J.,Bee Product Quality Supervision and Testing Center | Zhou J.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Quality and Safety of Bee Products | Qi Y.,Texas Heart Institute | And 11 more authors.
Food Control

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for reliable discrimination of bee pollen from different floral origins via simultaneous analysis of three flavonoid glycosides. A simple sample preparation procedure consisted of an ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandemmass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) technique to effectively identify and differentiate ten kinds of bee pollens has been developed and optimized in this study. For sample extraction, several parameters were optimized including extraction solvents, extraction patterns, solvent volume, extraction duration and temperature. The analytical method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision, matrix effect and carryover test using quality control sample. This method can consistently distinguish bee pollen by analyzing three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin-3-O-β- d-glucosyl-(2→l)-β-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 4'-di-O-β- d-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-β- d-glucosyl-(2→l)-β- d-glucoside). Therefore, this technique will be a suitable to be used as a discrimination method to identify the floral origin of bee pollen via the proposed marker components. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Y.,Bee Product Quality Supervision and Testing Center | Li Y.,Laboratory of Risk Assessment for Quality and Safety of Bee Products | Qi Y.,Texas Heart Institute | And 8 more authors.
Natural Product Research

To identify the structures of flavonoid glycosides in bee pollen collected from rapeseed plants (Brassica napus L.), we utilised an approach that combined liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology with a step-wise separation strategy. We identified four constituents of high purity in rape bee pollen samples: (1) quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-(2→l)-β-glucoside, (2) kaempferol-3, 4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside, (3) 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone-3-O-β-D-sophoroside and (4) kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-(2→l)-β-D-glucoside. This study will also provide useful reference standards for qualification and quantification of four flavonoid glycosides in natural products. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Zhou J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou J.,Bee Product Quality Supervision and Testing Center | Zhou J.,Apicultural Branch Center | Xu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Analytical Methods

An improved HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nucleosides in bee pollen samples of various floral origins. Bee pollen samples were dissolved in 35 mL pure water by agitation on a vortex mixer followed by ultrasonic-assisted extraction prior to quantitative analysis. HPLC conditions were optimized and good linearity (r 2 > 0.999) was obtained over the investigated concentration ranges. Precision was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays and RSD values were below 3.15%. Accuracies ranged from 82.7% to 124.7%, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of nucleosides in bee pollen samples and could be used for routine analysis as the standard method. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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