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St. Catharines, Canada

Brudzynski K.,Bee Biomedicals Inc. | Maldonado-Alvarez L.,McMaster University
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences | Year: 2015

There is increasing evidence that protein complexation by honey polyphenols is changing honey structure and function. This relatively less investigated filed of honey research is presented in a context of known mechanism of formation of the stable polyphenol-protein complexes in other foods. At a core of these interactions lies the ability of polyphenols to form non-covalent and covalent bonds with proteins leading to transient and/or irreversible complexes, respectively. Honey storage and thermal processing induces non-enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols to reactive quinones and enables them to form covalent bonds with proteins. In this short review, we present data from our laboratory on previously unrecognized types of protein-polyphenol complexes that differed in size, stoichiometry, and antioxidant capacities, and the implications they have to honey antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Our intent is to provide a current understanding of protein-polyphenol complexation in honey and also some new thoughts/hypotheses that can be useful in directing future research. © 2015 Author(s).

Brudzynski K.,Bee Biomedicals Inc. | Brudzynski K.,Brock University | Abubaker K.,Brock University | St-Martin L.,Brock University | Castle A.,Brock University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to critically analyze the effects of hydrogen peroxide on growth and survival of bacterial cells in order to prove or disprove its purported role as a main component responsible for the antibacterial activity of honey. Using the sensitive perox-ide/peroxidase assay, broth microdilution assay and DNA degradation assays, the quantitative relationships between the content of H2O2 and honey's antibacterial activity was established The results showed that: (A) the average H2O2 content in honey was over 900-fold lower than that observed in disinfectants that kills bacteria on contact. (B) A supplementation of bacterial cultures with H2O2 inhibited E. coli and B. subtilis growth in a concentration-dependent manner, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) values of 1.25 mM/107 cfu/ml and 2.5 mM/107 cfu/ml for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. In contrast, the MIC90 of honey against E. coli correlated with honey H2O2 content of 2.5 mM, and growth inhibition of B. subtilis by honey did not correlate with honey H2O2 levels at all. (C) A supplementation of bacterial cultures with H2O2 caused a concentration-dependent degradation of bacterial DNA, with the minimum DNA degrading concentration occurring at 2.5 mM H2O2. DNA degradation by honey occurred at lower than ≤2.5 mM concentration of honey H2O2 suggested an enhancing effect of other honey components. (D) Honeys with low H2O2 content were unable to cleave DNA but the addition of H2O2 restored this activity. The DNase-like activity was heat-resistant but catalase-sensitive indicating that H2O2 participated in the oxidative DNA damage. We concluded that the honey H2O2 was involved in oxidative damage causing bacterial growth inhibition and DNA degradation, but these effects were modulated by other honey components. © 2011 Brudzynski, Abubaker, St-Martin and Castle.

Brudzynski K.,Bee Biomedicals Inc. | Sjaarda C.,Bee Biomedicals Inc. | Lannigan R.,London Health Sciences Center
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps) that exhibited a rapid, concentration dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2 and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised 3 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and 5 Extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) identified as 1 Proteus mirabilis, 3 Escherichia coli and 1 Escherichia coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differred in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp ESBL and E. coli and up to 33μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a) their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b) the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate. © 2015 Brudzynski, Sjaarda and Lannigan.

We have recently identified the bacterial cell wall as the cellular target for honey antibacterial compounds; however, the chemical nature of these compounds remained to be elucidated. Using Concavalin A- affinity chromatography, we found that isolated glycoprotein fractions (glps), but not flow-through fractions, exhibited strong growth inhibitory and bactericidal properties. The glps possessed two distinct functionalities: (a) specific binding and agglutination of bacterial cells, but not rat erythrocytes and (b) non-specific membrane permeabilization of both bacterial cells and erythrocytes. The isolated glps induced concentra-tion-and time-dependent changes in the cell shape of both E. coli and B. subtilis as visualized by light and SEM microscopy. The appearance of filaments and spheroplasts correlated with growth inhibition and bactericidal effects, respectively. The time-kill kinetics showed a rapid, >5-log10 reduction of viable cells within 15 min incubation at 1xMBC, indicating that the glps-induced damage of the cell wall was lethal. Unexpectedly, MALDI-TOF and electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry, (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis of glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. The presence of high-mannose structures explained the lectin-like activity of MRJP1, while the presence of Jelleins in MRJP1 may explain cell wall disruptions. Thus, the observed damages induced by the MRJP1 to the bacterial cell wall constitute the mechanism by which the antibacterial effects were produced. Antibacterial activity of MRJP1 glps directly correlated with the overall antibacterial activity of honey, suggesting that it is honey's active principle responsible for this activity. © 2015 Brudzynski, Sjaarda.

Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (p < 0.0001). E. coli cells transformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase) remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and survival, honey active compounds would be highly applicable for therapeutic purposes while differences in the mode of action between honey and ampicillin may provide clinical advantage in eradicating β-lactam-resistant pathogens. © 2014 PLOS ONE.

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