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Cloonan K.,University of California at Davis | Bedoukian R.H.,Bedoukian Research Inc. | Leal W.,University of California at Davis
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

A three-step, quasi-double-bind approach was used as a proof-of-concept study to screen twenty compounds for their ability to reduce oviposition of gravid female navel orangeworm(NOW), Ameylois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). First, the panel of compounds, whose identity was unknown to the experimenters, was tested by electroantennogram (EAG) using antennae of two-day old gravid females as the sensing element. Of the twenty compounds tested three showed significant EAG responses. These three EAG-active compounds and a negative control were then analyzed for their ability to reduce oviposition via small-cage, two-choice laboratory assays. Two of the three compounds significantly reduced oviposition under laboratory conditions. Lastly, these two compounds were deployed in a field setting in an organic almond orchard in Arbuckle, CA using black egg traps to monitor NOW oviposition. One of these two compounds significantly reduced oviposition on black egg traps under these field conditions. Compound 9 (later identified as isophorone) showed a significant reduction in oviposition in field assays and thus has a potential as a tool to control the navel orangeworm as a pest of almonds. © 2013 Cloonan et al.


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Markets for Biopesticides" report to their offering. This market report organizes information from diverse sources into a cohesive unit that includes a pesticide (synthetic and biopesticide) overview, organic farming and production overview, industry structure, and technology and patents sections. Information on the synthetic pesticide market, genetically modified (GM) seeds and the biopesticide market is explored. Additional information on the organic market for food products offers the reader an opportunity to assess the biopesticide market in relation to crop production and sale of organic foods. Report includes - An overview of the global biopesticides and synthetic pesticides industry, including technological developments, future trends, and emerging opportunities. - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021. - The global supply and demand scenario broken down by applications and regions. - Examination of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, restraints, and opportunities. - Discussion of emerging technologies. - Relevant patent analysis. - Profiles of major players in the industry Key Topics Covered: 1: Introduction - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study - Scope Of Report - Methodology - Intended Audience - Information Sources 2: Summary 3: Overview - What Are Biopesticides? - The Use Of Integrated Pest Management - Advantages/Disadvantages Of Biopesticides - Classification Of Biopesticides - The Ideal Pesticide - Impact Of Cost Of Production - Acquisitions And Mergers - Significant Trends - Regional Analysis 4: Organic Farming And The Market For Products - Feeding The World In A Sustainable Manner - Market For Organically Cultivated Food - Market Projections For Organically Farmed Products - Certification Programs - Organic Farming Producers - Global Organic Farming Areas 5: Synthetic Pesticides And Genetically Modified Crops - Historical Perspective On Synthetic Pesticides - Synthetic Pesticide Demand - Global Synthetic Pesticide Revenues - Market Trends - Future Of Synthetic Pesticides - Development Of Genetically Modified Organisms - GM Seed Market - Important GM Seeds - Regulation Of GM Crops - Regional Analysis 6: Biopesticide Technology Review - Classification Of Biopesticides - Production Technology - Technological Development Of Microbial Pesticides - Commercial Production 7: Global Biopesticide Market - Costs To Develop Biopesticdes - Biopesticide Manufacturers - Advantages Of Biopesticides - Factors That Determine The Biopesticide Market - Market Challenges - Global Market For Biopesticides By Type - Global Biopesticide Market By Type Of Crop - Regional Analysis 8: Biopesticide Market In North America - Biopesticide Market In The United States - Biopesticide Market In Canada 9: Biopesticide Market In Central And South America - Biopesticide Market In Brazil - Biopesticide Market In Argentina - Biopesticide Market In Mexico - Biopesticide Market In Peru - Biopesticide Market In Other Countries In Central And South America 10: Biopesticide Market In Europe And Russia - Biopesticide Market In European Union - Biopesticide Market In Other European Countries - Biopesticide Market In The Russia 11: Biopesticide Market In The Middle East And Africa - Biopesticide Market In The Middle East - Biopesticide Market In Africa 12: Biopesticide Market In Asia - Biopesticide Market In China - Biopesticide Market In India - Biopesticide Market In Japan - Biopesticide Market In Other Asian Countries 13: Biopesticide Market In Oceania - Biopesticide Market In Australia - Biopesticide Market In New Zealand - Biopesticide Market In Other Oceanic Countries 14: Global Regulations - Important Biopesticides Control And Promotional Organizations - The Americas - Emra - Asia 15: Patents 16: Company Profiles - Actagro Llc - AG Biochem Inc. - Agbitech PTY Ltd. - Agraquest Inc. (See Bayer Crop Science) - Ajay Bio-Tech Ltd. - Amvac Chemical (American Vanguard Corp.) - Andermatt Biocontrol AG - Arbico Organics - Bayer Cropscience AG - Bayer Cropscience Biologics Gmbh (Formerly Prophyta Biologischer Pfanzenschutz Gmbh) - Basf Corp. (Formerly Becker Underwood Inc.) - Bedoukian Research Inc. - Bioag Alliance (Monsanto And Novozymes) - Biologic Co. - Biogard - Biosafe Systems Llc - Biotepp - Bioworks Inc. - Bonide Products - Certis USA Llc - Dow Agrosciences - Dsm Food Specialties - Embrapa Milho E Sorgo - Greeneem - Growth Products Ltd. - Hebei Veyong Biochemical Co. Ltd. - Hercon Environmental - Isagro SPA - Koppert Biological Systems - Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. Ltd. - Marrone Bio Innovations - Monsanto Bioag - Novozymes A/S - Omnilytics Inc. - Organic Materials Review Institue (OMRI) - Phyllom Bioproducts - Real IPM - Rincon-Vitova Insectaries - Russell IPM - Soil Technologies Corp. - Stockton Group - Sumitomo Corp. (See Valent) - Summit Chemical - Suterra - T. Stanes & Co. - Troy Biosciences Inc. - Tyratech Inc. - Valent Biosciences Corp. - Verdera OY - Westbridge Agricultural Products 17: Technical Terms And Definitions For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/s5c9q8/global_markets Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager press@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716


Krueger A.C.,Abbvie Inc. | Randolph J.T.,Abbvie Inc. | Degoey D.A.,Abbvie Inc. | Donner P.L.,Abbvie Inc. | And 17 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel aryl uracil series which contains a fused 5,6-bicyclic ring unit for HCV NS5B inhibition is described. Several analogs display replicon cell culture potencies in the low nanomolar range along with excellent rat pharmacokinetic values. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Carroll J.F.,Biocontrol | Kramer M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bedoukian R.H.,Bedoukian Research Inc.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2014

Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of arthropod repellents. Tick repellent bioassays are generally uncomplicated, but their results can be affected by basic variables (e.g., dimensions of testing materials, substrate, timing, temperature) of the assay. Using lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), nymphs in climbing bioassays, we tested for the effects of substrate, solvent, and drying time on tick responses. In dose-response tests, the widely used repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet) and 1-methylpropyl-2-(hydroxyethyl)-l- piperidinecarboxylate (picaridin) were applied to filter paper strips and challenged by ticks at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 120 min after application. At 10-min drying time, repellency at the intermediate concentration 500 nmol repellent/cm2 filter paper was significantly lower for ethanol solutions of deet and picaridin (0 and 10% ticks repelled, respectively) than for solutions of deet and picaridin in acetone (96.7 and 76.7% ticks repelled, respectively). Repellency was greatest for both the acetone and ethanol solutions of deet and picaridin when challenged 120 min after application, and at shorter drying times at the highest concentration tested (2,000 nmol compound/cm2). The repellency of picaridin relative to deet differed at some combinations of solvent and drying time but not others. In dose-response tests using different paper substrates and a drying time of 10 min, both ethanol and acetone solutions of deet differed in repellency, depending on both the paper substrate and the solvent. However, there were no differences in repellency between ethanol and acetone solutions of deet applied to nylon organdy in an in vitro and in an in vivo (fingertip) bioassay. When deet in solution with various proportions of ethanol:water was applied at 2,000 nmol deet/cm2 filter paper, the proportion of ticks repelled decreased as the proportion of water in the test solutions increased. Somewhat similar results were seen for solutions of deet in an acetone solvent. Water absorbed from the atmosphere may affect the efficacy of repellents in solution with anhydrous ethanol. Overall, results obtained from bioassays that differ in seemingly minor ways can be surprisingly different, diminishing the value of comparing studies that used similar, but not identical, methods. Nylon organdy or another similar thin cloth may be preferable to filter papers and copier paper for minimizing solvent-related differences. When a paper substrate is used, acetone may be the more suitable solvent if the solubility of the test compound and other factors allow. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


Weldon P.J.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Carroll J.F.,Biocontrol | Kramer M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bedoukian R.H.,Bedoukian Research Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011

Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, α-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).


Raina A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bedoukian R.,Bedoukian Research Inc. | Florane C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lax A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Twenty-nine natural products and their derivatives were tested for both contact and vapor toxicity against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Five natural products at 0.5% (wt:wt) in petri dish contact assay caused 100% mortality within 3 d. In vapor form, only three chemicals (styrallyl alcohol, 2-phenyl-2-propanol, and l-carvone) at 0.25 l/liter air caused >90% mortality in 3 d when tested on exposed termites. However, when termites were shielded by wood and soil, only one chemical, tetrahydrocarvone at 25 l/liter air caused 100% mortality in 2 d. Preliminary test with termites in carton nests, exposed to tetrahydrocarvone vapor in desiccators, resulted in an average of 98.6% mortality in 7 d. With further development in the method of delivery, this chemical may be very useful in fumigating confined areas of termite infestation.

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