Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.

Key Largo, FL, United States

Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.

Key Largo, FL, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Beckwith T.R.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc. | Mozina C.J.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2017

The petrochemical industry presently has no industry standards on the performance requirements for relays used to supervise critical process motor bus transfers (MBTs). A device testing protocol is proposed, and the results of extensive performance testing of relays used to implement the fast and in-phase methods of a motor bus synchronous transfer are analyzed. The existing industry criteria for determining the success of a completed transfer are used to evaluate these test results. The development of digital MBT systems with data recording capabilities provided a means of recording transfer data and provides key insight into what happens during actual transfers. Case studies of a number of live MBTs are presented and analyzed to begin to determine if a new transfer metric can be derived, based on recorded transfer inrush current and power when transfer is completed. © 2016 IEEE.


Hartmann W.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Conference Record of Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference | Year: 2016

Ground faults in generator stator and field/rotor circuits are serious events that can lead to damage, costly repair, extended outage and loss of revenue. This paper explores advances in field/rotor circuit ground fault and stator ground fault protection. [1] These advanced protection strategies employ AC injection, ground differential protection and the use of hybrid grounding to reduce both internal generator ground fault levels and facility ground levels in utility-paralleled operating modes. © 2016 IEEE.


Mozina C.J.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
2011 IEEE/PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition, PSCE 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper discusses green power distributed generation (DG) sources (of 10 MW or less), which are connected to the utility system at the distribution level, and their impact on distribution system reliability. Distribution circuits are designed to supply radial loads. Therefore, the introduction of green generation can result in: redistribution of fault and load currents on the feeder circuit, overvoltage and ferroresonance, plus a possible loss of protection system coordination - all of which can result in customer outages. The paper also discusses the specific reliability and protection issues in interconnecting green power generators to utility systems to mitigate the above cited reliability issues. © 2011 IEEE.


Mozina C.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine | Year: 2010

This article discusses green power distributed generation DG sources of 10 MW or less, which are connected to a utility system at the distribution level, and their impact on distribution system reliability. The article also summarizes the specific reliability and protection issues in interconnecting green power generators to utility systems to mitigate the aforementioned reliability issues. These issues are not adequately discussed in IEEE standard 1547, which addresses the interconnection of DG to utility systems. © 2006 IEEE.


Mozina C.J.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine | Year: 2012

The application of multifunctional digital relays to protect medium voltage power transformers has become a common industrial practice. Industrial transformers, unlike utility transformers, frequently use neutral grounding resistors to limit ground current during faults to the 200400 A range on medium voltage systems. This article discusses why these types of transformers require sensitive ground differential protection. The basics of transformer protection are also reviewed, including phasing standards, through-fault withstand capability, differential/fusing/overcurrent protection, slope, current transformer (CT) requirements, and harmonic restraint. How to best communicate these requirements when programming and commissioning new digital relays is discussed. The rationale for providing transformer overexcitation protection on all major transformers within industrial facilities is also addressed. © 2012 IEEE.


Mozina C.J.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
2012 65th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers | Year: 2012

Misoperations of generation protection during the U.S. east coast blackout on August 14, 2003 highlighted the need for better coordination of generator protection with generator capability, generator Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) control and transmission system protection. Generator protection misoperations also contributed to the 1996 California blackout. As a result of the 2003 blackouts, NERC (North Electric Reliability Council) has developed a white paper entitled Power Plant and Transmission System Protection Coordination [1]. The recommendations in the white paper are not yet a NERC standard, but will provide the technical input to producing a standard. This paper will provide practical guidance in implementing NERC-proposed guidelines (as outlined in the NERC white paper) for setting generator protection to coordinate with transmission protection. The paper will also address generator protection security issues that concern NERC that result from low system voltages, relay settings which restrict generator capability under emergency system conditions and coordination of generator protection with generator excitation and governor control. © 2012 IEEE.


Hartmann W.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Conference Record of Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference | Year: 2015

In pulp and paper plants, power transformers play a critical role in process continuity. These transformers are subject to internal short circuits, external short circuits and abnormal operating conditions. The following protection challenges to power transformers will be explored, and methods to improve the protection provided: • Remanence in a current transformer (CT) may cause misoperation of phase differential protection due to compromised CT performance. Heavy through-faults, sympathetic inrush and recovery inrush all cause high current. This combined with high remanent flux, can create a security issue. IEEE CT performance calculations will be used to support the use of dual slope differential characteristics to promote secure differential protection operation when challenged with unequal CT performance. • On transformer energizing, 2nd harmonic current has been traditionally used as a means to prevent phase differential misoperation. Certain transformers may not exhibit high enough 2nd harmonic, causing a dependability issue if the restraint is set too low. The use of 2nd and 4th harmonics for inrush detection will be shown to enhance reliability during energizing inrush situations. • Overexcitation can occur from abnormal operation of the utility system or the plant's excitation control. Causes of overexcitation will be outlined and use of volts per hertz protection explored. With overexcitation occurring from system voltage rise, the phase differential protection has been traditionally blocked using 5th harmonic restraint. This may cause an undesired non-operation of the phase differential protection if an internal fault occurs while the transformer is overexcited, causing a delay in tripping and severe damage to the transformer. A technique using adaptive phase differential pick-up value will be illustrated to overcome this challenge. • On resistance-grounded power transformers, phase differential protection sensitivity for ground faults near the neutral is decreased. The use of ground differential protection will be explored and the increased sensitivity gained will be demonstrated. © 2015 IEEE.


Turner S.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2014

This paper explains how to supervise the transfer of an important load bus from one source to another in less than one half-cycle. This supervision is required for large-scale industrial processes such as petroleum refineries. © 1972-2012 IEEE.


Mozina C.J.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2013

A significant amount of green power is being installed at the distribution level through the installation of green power generation facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This paper discusses green-power-generating sources (of 10 MW or less), which are connected to the utility system at the distribution level, and their impact on the distribution system. This paper also discusses the impact of smart grid and whether this new technology can solve some of the issues raised in this paper. Distribution circuits are designed to supply radial loads. Therefore, the introduction of green generation could mean redistribution of fault and load currents on the feeder circuit, overvoltage, and ferroresonance, plus a possible loss of protection system coordination-all of which can result in customer outages. This paper discusses these issues which are generally not well understood by many distribution protection engineers and can adversely affect distribution system reliability. © 1972-2012 IEEE.


Yalla M.V.V.S.,Beckwith Electrical Company Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2010

This paper addresses the design of a high-speed motor bus transfer system for power-generating plants and industrial facilities where motor loads require comprehensive source transfer strategies during transfer of the load from one source to another. Motor bus transfer schemes are needed not only to maintain process continuity but also to transfer sources in such a manner to prevent damage to the motors and connected loads. The motor bus frequency and voltage decay rapidly upon disconnection from the main source. This paper proposes a digital signal processing algorithm that can measure the magnitude and phase angle of the decaying bus voltage accurately while measuring the auxiliary-source voltage magnitude and phase angle at rated frequency. This paper details an algorithm to predict the phase coincidence between the motor bus voltage and the auxiliary-source voltage. The algorithm uses delta frequency, the rate of change of delta frequency, and breaker closing time to predict the phase coincidence. This paper also details the implementation of the motor bus transfer scheme that includes fast, in-phase, and residual transfer methods. The results of some real-time transfer cases are also included. © 2010 IEEE.

Loading Beckwith Electrical Company Inc. collaborators
Loading Beckwith Electrical Company Inc. collaborators