Gupta S.,Becker Technologies GmbH
Nuclear Engineering and Technology | Year: 2015
The accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, caused by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, resulted in a failure of the power systems that are needed to cool the reactors at the plant. The accident progression in the absence of heat removal systems caused Units 1-3 to undergo fuel melting. Containment pressurization and hydrogen explosions ultimately resulted in the escape of radioactivity from reactor containments into the atmosphere and ocean. Problems in containment venting operation, leakage from primary containment boundary to the reactor building, improper functioning of standby gas treatment system (SGTS), unmitigated hydrogen accumulation in the reactor building were identified as some of the reasons those added-up in the severity of the accident. The Fukushima accident not only initiated worldwide demand for installation of adequate control and mitigation measures to minimize the potential source term to the environment but also advocated assessment of the existing mitigation systems performance behavior under a wide range of postulated accident scenarios. The uncertainty in estimating the released fraction of the radionuclides due to the Fukushima accident also underlined the need for comprehensive understanding of fission product behavior as a function of the thermal hydraulic conditions and the type of gaseous, aqueous, and solid materials available for interaction, e.g., gas components, decontamination paint, aerosols, and water pools. In the light of the Fukushima accident, additional experimental needs identified for hydrogen and fission product issues need to be investigated in an integrated and optimized way. Additionally, as more and more passive safety systems, such as passive autocatalytic recombiners and filtered containment venting systems are being retrofitted in current reactors and also planned for future reactors, identified hydrogen and fission product issues will need to be coupled with the operation of passive safety systems in phenomena oriented and coupled effects experiments. In the present paper, potential hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident are discussed. The discussion focuses on hydrogen and fission product behavior inside nuclear power plant containments under severe accident conditions. The relevant experimental investigations conducted in the technical scale containment THAI (thermal hydraulics, hydrogen, aerosols, and iodine) test facility (9.2 m high, 3.2 m in diameter, and 60 m3 volume) are discussed in the light of the Fukushima accident. © 2015, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC on behalf of Korean Nuclear Society.
Fischer K.,Becker Technologies GmbH |
Freitag M.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute |
Kang H.S.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2014
Mass transfer of molecular iodine (I2) at the water pool-gas interface can be modeled by means of a water surface film renewal model superimposed to the established two-film theory, where the water-side I2 mass transfer coefficient kw is related to the I2 molecular diffusivity in water D and the air-water contact time a according to The present paper describes a mechanistic approach to determine the contact time from the water flow distribution. The method makes use of a numerical simulation of the poolwater flow, and a numerical evaluation of the contact time distribution at the pool surface. Owing to the numerical treatment it can be applied to pool geometries of any kind, which makes it applicable for nuclear reactor safety studies in general kw = √D/πa The present paper describes a mechanistic approach to determine the contact time from the water flow distribution. The method makes use of a numerical simulation of the poolwater flow, and a numerical evaluation of the contact time distribution at the pool surface. Owing to the numerical treatment it can be applied to pool geometries of any kind, which makes it applicable for nuclear reactor safety studies in general. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Becker Technologies GmbH | Date: 2012-08-29
Battery monitoring devices that may be attached to a battery to monitor the performance of the battery and operating software for use therewith, sold as a unit.
Weber G.,GRS Society for plants and Reactor Safety |
Bosland L.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety |
Funke F.,AREVA |
Glowa G.,Chalk River Laboratories |
Kanzleiter T.,Becker Technologies GmbH
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2010
The large-scale iodine test Iod-9 of the German Thermal hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, Iodine (THAI) program was jointly interpreted by means of post-test analyses within the THAI Circle of the Severe Accident Research NETwork (SARNET)/Work Package 16. In this test, molecular iodine (I2) was injected into the vessel dome of the 60 m3 THAI vessel to observe the evolution of its distribution between water, gas, and surfaces. The main processes addressed in Iod-9 are (a) the mass transfer of I2 between the gas and the two sumps, (b) the iodine transport in the main sump when it is stratified and then mixed, and (c) the I2 adsorption onto, and desorption from, the vessel walls in the presence and absence of wall condensation. The codes applied by the THAI Circle partners were the Accident Source Term Evaluation Code (ASTEC)-IODE (IRSN, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France), Containment Code System (COCOSYS)-Advanced Iodine Model (AIM) (GRS, Garching, Germany), and Library of Iodine Reactions in Containment (LIRIC; AECL, Chalk River, ON, Canada). ASTEC-IODE and the Advanced Iodine Model (AIM) are semi-empirical iodine models integrated in the lumped-parameter codes ASTEC and COCOSYS, respectively. With both codes multicompartment iodine calculations can be performed. LIRIC is a mechanistic iodine model for single stand-alone calculations. The simulation results are compared with each other and with the experimental measurements. Special issues that were encountered during this work were studied in more details: I2 diffusion in the sump water, I 2 reaction with the steel of the vessel wall in gaseous and aqueous phases, and I2 mass transfer from the gas to the sump. Iodine transport and behavior in THAI test Iod-9 are fairly well simulated by ASTEC-IODE, COCOSYS-AIM, and LIRIC in post-test calculations. The measured iodine behavior is well understood and all measured data are found to be consistent. The very slow iodine transport within the stratified main sump was simulated with COCOSYS only, in a qualitative way. Consequently, this work highlighted the need to improve modeling of (a) the wet iodine adsorption and the washdown from the walls, (b) the I2 mass transfer between gas and sump, and (c) the I2 /steel reaction in the gaseous and aqueous phases. In any case, the analysis of the large-scale iodine test Iod-9 has been an important validation step for the codes applied. © 2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Gupta S.,Becker Technologies GmbH |
Schmidt E.,Becker Technologies GmbH |
Von Laufenberg B.,Becker Technologies GmbH |
Freitag M.,Becker Technologies GmbH |
And 3 more authors.
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2015
The test facility THAI (thermal-hydraulics, hydrogen, aerosol, and iodine) aims at addressing open questions concerning gas distribution, behaviour of hydrogen, iodine and aerosols in the containment of light water reactors during severe accidents. Main component of the facility is a 60 m3 stainless steel vessel, 9.2 m high and 3.2 m in diameter, with exchangeable internals for multi-compartment investigations. The maximal design pressure of the vessel is 14 bar which allows H2 combustion experiments at a severe accident relevant H2 concentration level. The facility is approved for the use of low-level radiotracer I-123 which enables the measurement of time resolved iodine behaviour. The THAI test facility allows investigating various accident scenarios, ranging from turbulent free convection to stagnant stratified containment atmospheres and can be combined with simultaneous use of hydrogen, iodine and aerosol issues. THAI experimental research also covers investigations related to mitigation systems employed in light water reactor containments by performing experiments on, e.g. pressure suppression pool hydrodynamics, performance behaviour of passive autocatalytic recombiners, and spray interaction with hydrogen-steam-air flames in phenomenon orientated and coupled-effects experiments. The THAI experimental data have been widely used for the validation and further development of Lumped Parameter and Computational Fluid Dynamics codes with 3D capabilities, e.g. International Standard Problems ISP-47 (thermal hydraulics, gas distribution) and ISP-49 (hydrogen combustion), EU-SARNET/SARNET2 code-benchmark exercises involving THAI data on iodine/surface interactions, iodine mass transfer, passive autocatalytic recombiner performance, iodine oxide behaviour and iodine transport in multi-compartment behaviour. The present paper provides an overview of the THAI experiments related to hydrogen and fission products issues performed in the frame of national and international projects. From the comprehensive THAI experimental database, a selection of typical results is presented to illustrate the multi-functionality of the THAI facility and the broad variety of the experimental investigations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.