Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd.

Speke, United Kingdom

Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd.

Speke, United Kingdom
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Ngo S.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd. | Ngo S.,Sheffield Hallam University | Lowe C.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd. | Lewis O.,Sheffield Hallam University | Greenfield D.,Sheffield Hallam University
Progress in Organic Coatings | Year: 2017

A sample of pre-painted metal was investigated using the dual beam system of a focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FIB was used to remove material (known as ‘milling’), clean and ‘polish’ the sample exposing a cross-section of the coating. SEM was then used to investigate and analyse the structure and composition of the coating system. However, preliminary trials showed that in order to have good compositional data the technique needs to be developed and optimised. This paper presents the experimental work that was carried out in order to achieve this. First the milling area was changed from the centre of sample to the edge of the sample. Second, the mill shape needed to be changed from a rectangle to an isosceles trapezoid to allow better detection of the characteristic X-rays for the detector. Finally the tilt and rotation of the stage were changed for further improvement in X-ray detection. Focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) was found to be a useful technique to study the cross-sections of pre-painted metal. Information from secondary and backscatter electrons images can reveal the quality of the coating (for example adhesion to substrate, pigment dispersion, interfacial properties etc.) and also the thickness of the coating causing less damage to the sample compared to other mechanical sectioning techniques. Additionally it offers the ability to look at specific areas of interest such as defects, contamination and corroded areas. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis allows mapping of the elements which are shown distributed in the coating and also the quantification of those elements. The results obtained from EDS analysis were representative of the components that were formulated into the pre-painted metal product. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Lowe C.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd | Taylor A.,Imperial College London
Macromolecular Symposia | Year: 2017

The output from a molecular model of a polyester melamine thermoset coating, generated using techniques developed for modelling biological systems, that attempts to predict the performance of free films in a tensile test, is compared to empirical results and the out-put from a phenomenological model. The latter was constructed using standard equations used by engineers to predict the behaviour of polymers under various conditions from a set of parameters measured by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Both come close to predicting reality but a more rapid change in intermolecular forces with temperature, for the first model, would help it to achieve more accurate predictions. Associating some of the parameters of the phenomenological model with molecular mass and chain length may help improve the second model. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Adhami S.,University of Surrey | Abel M.-L.,University of Surrey | Lowe C.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd. | Watts J.F.,University of Surrey
Surface and Interface Analysis | Year: 2014

In the search for improvements in the environmental credentials of the organic coatings industry, several different aspects are currently being addressed, including the reduction of volatile organic compounds, development of UV curable coatings and the reduction of potentially hazardous components in coating formulations. The performance of a novel water-based primer system, applied to alkali cleaned hot dipped galvanized steel, was investigated previously. It was shown that the level of adhesion promoter has a clear effect on durability and performance to the panels painted with the candidate primer and topcoat. Two concentrations of adhesion promoter were used, and the formulation with the higher concentration exhibited better coating longevity. The aim of this work is to understand the role of adhesion promoter in the primer formulation, particularly the manner in which it interacts with the substrate and the topcoat. This paper will describe the distribution of the adhesion promoter across the primer layer considering the possible opportunities of such a component enhancing the primer interaction at either interface. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Adhami S.,University of Surrey | Abel M.-L.,University of Surrey | Lowe C.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd | Watts J.F.,University of Surrey
Surface and Interface Analysis | Year: 2012

The durability of a high-performance coating system based on a polyester top coat and a water-based primer system has been studied by exposure of coated panels to salt spray and 100% RH. The humidity exposure is less deleterious than the salt spray with a higher concentration of an adhesion promoter further enhancing durability in each case. XPS analysis establishes that in both cases failure occurs as a result of a weak boundary layer of zinc oxide corrosion product. Further testing of these pre-exposed panels using a wet adhesion test and a mechanical pull-off test confirms the superior performance of the formulation with a higher level of adhesion promoter in both tests. The locus of failure is generally in the organic phase, although those specimens at the lower end of the performance spectrum show a significant amount of failure at or close to the coating/substrate interface. For samples pre-exposed to the salt spray, the presence of chloride ions at the failed interface indicates that such a treatment may have a deleterious effect on subsequent performance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Zhang Y.,Queen Mary, University of London | Zhang Y.,Monier Technical Center Ltd. | Barber A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Maxted J.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Organic Coatings | Year: 2013

The depth distribution of a TiO 2 pigment within the polyurethane (PU) coil coatings is investigated using step scan phase modulation photoacoustic (SS-PM-PA) FTIR. Coil coatings with different pigment contents were prepared and the modulation frequency (MF) of the SS-PM-PA FTIR varied to record the depth distribution of the pigment within the coating. The TiO 2 pigment was shown to contribute significantly to the SS-PM-PA FTIR signal. A TiO 2 aggregated region within the topcoat is found close to the topcoat-primer interface and further away from the topcoat surface. A deeper TiO 2 aggregated region can be identified when pigment content is relatively low. The SS-PM-PA FTIR signal shows a considerable contribution from the primer originated signal, provided the TiO 2 pigment content is sufficiently high and the modulation frequency applied is relatively low. SEM cross-section imaging results show a strong correlation of the TiO 2 depth distribution with SS-PM-PA FTIR results, which confirms the applicability of the SS-PM-PA FTIR technique to the depth profiling study of TiO 2 pigmented coil coatings. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.2-02 | Award Amount: 5.64M | Year: 2013

BISIGODOS aims to address the production of valuable algae derived chemicals, amino acids and high added-value bio-resins for coatings, printing, food and hair care and adhesives applications, starting from algae biomass fed directly with CO2 from industrial emissions (cement, steel factory, thermal power plants, etc.) as a raw material that is cost-effective and renewable. The process is assisted by solar radiation, nutrients and sea water microalgae. This approach is based on the technology developed by the Partner Biofuel Systems (BFS) to produce bio-oil. In order to develop such technology, several innovative approaches are proposed: - New algae strains production optimization and CO2 energetic balance improvement. -Optimization of photo-bioreactors - Study and adaptation of separation of algae components based on hybrid technologies. - Production of algae derived chemicals for surfactants applications and amino acids for food applications - Production of bio-based resins from algae based fatty acids and bio-oil aromatic moieties. Similar studies have been carried out at laboratory level to obtain a broad range of algae derived chemicals, however BISIGODOS project aims to work at semi-industrial scale using the BFS industrial photo-bioreactors facilities. Results obtained at this scale, under a well controlled process, will permit to validate the lab scale results and to develop new ones (mainly in the bioresin field) gaining a real knowledge of the industrial-market possibilities that the microalgae technologies offer and contributing to define the roadmap of the technology


Rossi G.,Aalto University | Giannakopoulos I.,Imperial College London | Monticelli L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Monticelli L.,University Paris Diderot | And 8 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

We hereby present a coarse-grained model of a typical polyester resin for coil coating applications. We validate the model via comparison with experimental data. The interactions between coarse-grained particles are described by the MARTINI force-field [Marrink et al.J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 11, 7812 ]. Our model and molecular dynamics simulation protocols include the description of a hardener and the formation of cross-links between the hardener and the polyester resin. We perform experimental tests on the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of the system, and compare them with molecular dynamics simulations. The model estimates the glass transition temperature of the coating within 30 K of the experimental measurement. The model captures correctly the broadening effect of cross-linking on the glass transition, and on the temperature dependence of the elastic response of the polyester resin. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Zhang Y.,Queen Mary, University of London | Maxted J.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd. | Barber A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Lowe C.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd. | Smith R.,Queen Mary, University of London
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2013

A step scan phase modulation photo-acoustic (SS-PM-PA) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peak fitting method has been developed and applied to study (i) the degradation of the polyurethane (PU) coatings crosslinked with different isocyanates, (ii) the harshness of the natural exposure sites, and (iii) the correlation between the accelerated and natural exposure sites in terms of the degradation. Methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) blocked hexamethylene diisocyanate biuret (HDI-BI), MEKO blocked hexamethylene diisocyanate cyclic trimer (HDI-CT) and 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole (DMP) blocked isophorone diisocyanate cyclic trimer (IPDI-CT) were used as-received to crosslink a cycloaliphatic saturated polyester resin binder. It was found that HDI-CT crosslinked PU coating is more durable compared to the HDI-BI. IPDI-CT crosslinked PU coating gives higher durability than the HDI-CT and the HDI-BI. The areas of deconvoluted peaks with Centre X (cm-1) = 1573, 1553 and 1535 (amide II, NH-CO) and Centre X (cm-1) = 1832, 1813, 1792 and 1770 (acid, anhydride, peracid) are used for degradation index calculation, due to their consistent decreasing and increasing trends, respectively, along with the degradation. It has been found that the natural weathering site in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL) is harsher than that at Vereeniging, South Africa (SA). The harshness of one year SA and KL natural weathering is comparable to 300 h-900 h of the QUV A exposure test. FTIR peak fitting method outperformed the integration method by giving a better correlation between the accelerated and natural weathering tests in terms of the degradation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lowe C.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd. | Maxted J.T.,Becker Industrial Coatings Ltd.
WIT Transactions on the Built Environment | Year: 2014

Sustainable coatings for pre-coated metal can come in many guises, for instance the raw materials themselves can be derived from sustainable sources such as biomass. In addition they can be smart, which means having some degree of functionality; for instance, they can help improve the thermal comfort within a building by reflecting or absorbing solar radiation depending upon global location and whether the interior needs to remain cool or achieve a particular level of warmth. Furthermore, the aesthetics of a building can be improved by resisting dirt. All of these smart effects combined with more sustainable sourcing can be used to obtain BREEAM or LEED points. © 2014 WIT Press.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 131.17K | Year: 2011

It is interesting to speculate that Nelsons victory at Trafalgar was due to an absence of biofouling on the ships hulls (which were made of copper, a known biocide) allowing them superior speed.Biofouling is the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, algae etc which occurs on submersed structures. The effects of biofouling are considerable; increased frictional drag, leading to increased fuel consumption and associated CO2, SOx, NOx emissions; restrictions in internal pipe dimensions leading to loss of flow, increased pressure and poor heat exchange in pipelines and commonly, the development of biofilms that provide habitats for the development of aggressive micro climates that are extremely acidic and lead to rapid rates of corrosion and structural failure, e.g., BP Purdoe Bay pipeline failure was due to microbial induced corrosion (MIC).The aim of this project is to commercialise a non-biocidal antifouling coating. The coating is based upon the concept that protective bacteria encapsulated within a sol-gel matrix, and applied to a surface, will prevent harmful biofilms forming on that surface. The protective bacteria in this case consist of endospores that are naturally ocurring in soil and are non-pathogenic. The concept has been proven in an EPSRC project that will end in October 2010.We propose to work with selected partners who manufacture coatings for the key markets that utilise antifouling coatings. The partners will help with commercial performance testing that will allow us to benchmark our coating against current commercially available coatings. We will address the requirement for the coating to be applied under industrial conditions to large surface areas and the feasibility of applying our coating on top of existing marine coatings that are applied to prevent corrosion. Importantly we will address the issue of scale-up of manufacture, particularly that of endospore production, something that traditional coating manufacturers are not familiar with. The partners will also advise on Health & Safety issues and provide guidance on regulatory requirements of the coating.

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