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News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.techrepublic.com

Falling for an impostor's email is easier than you might think. Imagine this scenario: You work for a large company that has been involved in acquisitions. Your job is to pay the bills. One morning, you get an email from your CEO who’s travelling. He wants you to do a wire transfer so that he can start the process of acquiring another company. And he doesn’t want you to tell anyone until the deal is done. It’s not uncommon for your CEO to email you about wiring money. And it makes sense that he doesn’t want the news to leak. This is an example of business email compromise (BEC), an attack that has hit more than 22,000 organisations around the world and cost an estimated $3.08 billion since the FBI began tracking it in January 2015. BEC attacks use email to trick people into wiring money or sending sensitive corporate information such as employees’ personal data. Fortunately, you can prevent BEC attacks from succeeding. Consider this guide a starting point. Learn about the factors behind the surge of BEC attacks, what to do if it happens to you, and most important, how to how to avoid falling victim in the first place.


Graphene - Here's What You Should Know Negative mass, a concept that mostly remained in the realm of speculative theories, has been physically observed by scientists from the Washington State University. The concept got traction by enthusiasts who argue that since electric charges can be positive or negative, then the matter can also take up positive or negative mass. Proponents of the existence of negative mass were using it as a tool for interpreting wormholes, which are cosmological tunnels supposed to exist between two points of the universe. The conceptual patronage for wormholes came from physicists such as Ludwig Flamm, Albert Einstein, and Nathan Rosen, who believed that black holes are stretchable and envisaged their inter-linkages with implications of negative mass properties for such transits. A wormhole has no observational evidence to back it. In theory, it is considered the medium of intergalactic travel. However, negative mass completely overturns the conventional laws of motion. The Newton's laws of motion state that when an object is pushed, acceleration works in the direction to which the object has been shoved. "With negative mass, if you push something, it accelerates toward you," said Michael Forbes, a physicist at Washington State University and co-author of the paper. That means an object with negative mass is defying laws of motion, which hold force as a product of mass multiplied by the acceleration (F=ma) of the object, and acting in the reverse direction. The concept of negative mass was fist propounded by physicist Hermann Bondi in a paper published in 1957. He argued that negative mass is a possibility given that there are negative electric charges. In creating the preliminary conditions required for observing negative mass, the team led by Peter Engels of Washington State University (WSU) cooled rubidium atoms just above the temperature of absolute zero, close to -273C for making the Bose-Einstein Condensate. In the BEC state, the particles will move slowly and act like waves in accordance with quantum mechanics. In the superfluid state, the flow will be without loss of energy. In the next step, the researchers used lasers to kick the rubidium atoms back and forth for making changes in the way they were spinning. The BEC, when agitated by lasers showed a tendency to rush out of the web with negative mass. "Once you push, it accelerates backward," said Forbes and noted the rubidium was behaving as if it was hitting an invisible wall. After releasing atoms from the laser trap, they were found expanding and displaying negative mass properties. In the experiment, the WSU researchers made sure that past defects did not constrain the experiment as in previous attempts while trying to understand negative mass. "What's a first here is the exquisite control we have over the nature of this negative mass, without any other complications," said Forbes. The new research is expected to trigger more studies in astrophysics, neutron stars, dark energy, and black holes. Forbes said the experiment will provide the right guidance for environments in studying the peculiar phenomenon. The study has been published in the Physical Review Letters. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - 2 mai 2017) - Don Head, commissaire du Service correctionnel du Canada (SCC), a fait la déclaration suivante au sujet du dépôt du rapport intitulé Issue fatale : Enquête sur le décès évitable de Matthew Ryan Hines, du Bureau de l'enquêteur correctionnel (BEC). « Au nom du Service correctionnel du Canada (SCC), je tiens à exprimer nos plus profondes et sincères condoléances à la famille et aux amis de Matthew Hines relativement au décès tragique de leur être cher. Je tiens aussi à présenter nos excuses à la famille de M. Hines pour l'inexactitude de l'information transmise au moment de son décès. Nos pensées restent avec eux tandis que nous nous efforçons d'apporter des changements importants en réaction aux enjeux qui ont contribué au décès de M. Hines. Nous reconnaissons qu'il y avait des questions très préoccupantes en ce qui a trait au recours à la force contre M. Hines et à l'ensemble de la réaction à la situation d'urgence médicale qui a entraîné son décès. Le décès de M. Hines, comme tous les décès en établissement, est une tragédie, qui dans son cas aurait pu être évitée s'il y avait eu une série d'interventions différentes le 26 mai 2015. Nous tenons à assurer à la famille et aux amis de M. Hines, et à tous les Canadiens, que le SCC prend tous les cas de décès en établissement au sérieux et que nous avons à cœur de faire en sorte que les leçons importantes tirées de son décès soient dorénavant intégrées à notre réaction à des situations semblables. Le rapport de l'enquêteur correctionnel fournit des renseignements supplémentaires et des recommandations qui viendront s'ajouter à notre plan d'action continu et aux mesures correctives que nous avons déjà prises à la suite du dépôt du rapport du comité d'enquête sur le décès de M. Hines. Au nom du SCC, j'accepte les recommandations formulées par le BEC. Notre réponse rend compte de notre détermination à tirer des leçons du décès de M. Hines et à constamment nous efforcer d'améliorer nos interventions en cas d'urgence médicale. Mon équipe de la haute direction et moi-même continuons de travailler en collaboration à l'échelle nationale, régionale et des établissements pour respecter les engagements cernés dans notre plan d'action sur le décès de M. Hines. Par exemple, nous avons mis à jour nos politiques et amélioré nos programmes de formation, y compris l'ajout de nouveaux exercices de simulation fondés sur certains facteurs précis du dossier. Nous savons qu'il reste du travail à faire pour prévenir les décès en établissement. Notre réponse au rapport du BEC nous permettra, concrètement, de voir à ce que les réactions aux situations d'urgence médicale soient plus rapides et appropriées et à ce qu'elles visent avant tout à protéger la vie. Le SCC continuera de faire tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour apporter les améliorations nécessaires et de veiller à ce que tous les membres du personnel et les nouveaux employés comprennent bien les obligations que leur imposent la loi et les politiques. » Réponse du Service correctionnel du Canada au rapport Issue fatale : Enquête sur le décès évitable de Matthew Ryan Hines Issue fatale : Enquête sur le décès évitable de Matthew Ryan Hines Compte Flickr du SCC - Pénitencier de Dorchester Suivez le Service correctionnel du Canada (@SCC_CSC_fr) sur Twitter. Pour plus d'information, visitez le site Web suivant : www.csc-scc.gc.ca.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

IRONSCALES, the leader in anti email phishing technologies, today announced that it successfully detected and remediated yesterday’s Gmail and Google Docs phishing attack for its customers across four continents. The complex phishing event, which is projected to have compromised millions of Google apps users worldwide, was reported by several employees of IRONSCALES’ customers in real-time, which triggered IronTraps, its automatic email phishing remediation solution. Once reported, the email was removed from infected mailboxes and attack intelligence was automatically shared with IRONSCALES’ customers via Federation, its global email phishing intelligence network, which prevented the malicious email from affecting other organizations. The time from the first email landing in an employee mailbox until enterprise-wide remediation of all infected mailboxes was under 10 minutes. “Yesterday’s attack is another example of how sophisticated attackers have become with using phishing campaigns to bypass cyber defenses,” said Eyal Benishti, founder and CEO of IRONSCALES. “Organizations are currently spending millions of dollars on cybersecurity solutions that neglect to combat the root cause of breaches - phishing emails. IRONSCALES automated email phishing response technologies are uniquely suited to identify and remediate all types of phishing and email spoofing /impersonation (BEC) attacks before damages can occur.” IRONSCALES customers on four continents spanning the logistics, manufacturing, agriculture, energy, education and satellite services industries, among others, were targeted by yesterday’s phishing attack. In total, several hundred mailboxes were remediated. “Even though this specific attack made waves in the media, IRONSCALES is spotting and responding to similar attacks on a daily basis,” added Benishti. IRONSCALES provides a multi-layered approach to prevent, detect and respond to today’s sophisticated email phishing attacks. By combining human awareness training with automatic incident response, automatic remediation and real-time actionable intelligence sharing, IRONSCALES reduces the time from phishing attack discovery to enterprise-wide remediation from months to seconds, without requiring any SOC team involvement. For more information on IRONSCALES, visit http://www.ironscales.com  and follow @ironscales on Twitter. About IRONSCALES   IRONSCALES is the leader in anti email phishing technologies. Using a multi-layered approach to prevent, detect and respond to today’s sophisticated email phishing attacks expedites the time from phishing attack to remediation from weeks to seconds, without ever needing the SOC team's involvement. Headquartered in Raanana, Israel, IRONSCALES was founded by a team of security researchers, IT and penetration testing experts, as well as specialists in the field of effective interactive training, in response to the increasing phishing epidemic that today costs companies millions of dollars annually. It was incubated in the 8200 EISP, the top program for cyber security ventures, founded by alumni of the Israel Defense Forces’ elite Intelligence Technology unit.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

SAN JOSE, Calif., May 04, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. (NASDAQ:UBNT) (“Ubiquiti” or the “Company”) today announced results for its fiscal 2017 third quarter ended March 31, 2017. Financial Highlights ($, in millions, except per share data) Balance Sheet Highlights Total cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2017 were $533.9 million, compared with $612.7 million as of December 31, 2016.  The Company held $511.8 million of cash and cash equivalents in accounts of the Company’s subsidiaries outside of the United States.  We repurchased $96.3 million of common stock during the quarter, repurchasing 1,932,411 shares at an average price of $49.82 per share.  Additionally, we amended the Company’s Credit Agreement, providing an additional $100 million of availability under our revolving credit facility, effective as of April 14, 2017. This quarter the Company experienced an increase in days sales outstanding in accounts receivable ("DSO") to 52 days, compared with 50 days in the prior quarter.  DSO’s have increased over time and we expect this increase to continue as the mix of the Company’s distributors evolves toward larger volumes of products moving through large distributors who qualify for credit terms.  Enabling these distributors to purchase higher volumes of products on credit terms allows them to shorten the cash conversion cycle and has helped enable Ubiquiti to significantly expand its market share while maintaining a conservative customer credit profile. Ubiquiti has invested in inventory to reduce lead times, meet increasing demand and support the commensurate growth of the Company’s customers.  The Company is committed to optimizing inventory to correspond with end-market demand.  Finished goods inventory at the end of the quarter increased $27.5 million to $122.8 million, primarily driven by increased inventory of our newer products.  The Company expects to hold 8 to 12 weeks of previously introduced product inventory in warehouses going forward, in addition to new product inventory and selected raw materials. Business Outlook Based on recent business trends, the Company believes the demand environment in its end markets supports the following forecast for the Company's fiscal fourth quarter ending June 30, 2017: Conference Call Information Ubiquiti Networks will host a Q&A-only call to discuss the Company’s financial results at 5:30 p.m. Eastern Time (2:30 p.m. Pacific Time) today.  Management’s prepared remarks can be found on the Investor Relations section of the Ubiquiti Networks website, http://ir.ubnt.com/results.cfm. To listen to the Q&A call via telephone, dial (877) 291-1296 (U.S. toll-free) or (720) 259-9209 (International) Conference ID: 97551818.  Participants should dial in at least 10 minutes prior to the start of the call.  Investors may also listen to a live webcast of the Q&A conference call by visiting the Investor Relations section of the Ubiquiti Networks website at http://ir.ubnt.com. A recording of the Q&A call will be available approximately two hours after the call concludes and will be accessible on the Investor Relations section of the Ubiquiti Networks website, http://ir.ubnt.com. About Ubiquiti Networks Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. (Nasdaq:UBNT) eliminates barriers to connectivity for under-networked enterprises, communities and consumers with its leading-edge platforms that connect hundreds of millions of people throughout the world.  With over 60 million devices sold worldwide, through a network of over 100 distributors, to customers in more than 180 countries and territories, Ubiquiti has maintained an industry-leading financial profile by leveraging a unique business model to develop products that combine innovative technology with disruptive price-to-performance characteristics.  Our growth is supported by the Ubiquiti Community, a global grass-roots community of 4 million entrepreneurial operators and systems integrators who engage in thousands of forums.  For more information, join our community at http://www.ubnt.com. Ubiquiti, Ubiquiti Networks, the U logo, UBNT, airMAX, UniFi, airFiber, mFi, EdgeMAX and AmpliFi are registered trademarks or trademarks of Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Safe Harbor for Forward Looking Statements Certain statements in this press release are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.  Statements other than statements of historical fact including words such as “look”, "will", “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”, “expect”, "forecast", “consider” and “plan” and statements in the future tense are forward looking statements.  The statements in this press release that could be deemed forward-looking statements include statements regarding our expectations for our financial results for the fourth fiscal quarter and full fiscal year and statements regarding expectations related to our cash position, expenses, DSO, number of distributors and resellers, shipments, the roll-out of our consumer retail channel, the introduction of new consumer products, Gross Margins, R&D, SG&A, tax rates, inventory turns, growth opportunities, demand and long term global environment for our products, new products, and financial performance estimates including revenues, GAAP diluted EPS and non-GAAP diluted EPS for the Company's third fiscal quarter, fourth fiscal quarter and full fiscal year, and any statements or assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual future results to differ materially, or cause a material adverse impact on our results.  Potential risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, fluctuations in our operating results; varying demand for our products due to the financial and operating condition of our distributors and their customers, and distributors' inventory management practices; political and economic conditions and volatility affecting the stability of business environments, economic growth, currency values, commodity prices and other factors that may influence the ultimate demand for our products in particular geographies or globally; impact of counterfeiting and our ability to contain such impact; our reliance on a limited number of distributors; inability of our contract manufacturers and suppliers to meet our demand; our dependence on Qualcomm Atheros for chipsets without a short-term alternative; as we move into new markets competition from certain of our current or potential competitors who may be more established in such markets; our ability to keep pace with technological and market developments; success and timing of new product introductions by us and the performance of our products generally; our ability to effectively manage the significant increase in our transactional sales volumes; we may become subject to warranty claims, product liability and product recalls; that a substantial majority of our sales are into countries outside the United States and we are subject to numerous U.S. export control and economic sanctions laws; costs related to responding to government inquiries related to regulatory compliance; our reliance on the Ubiquiti Community; our reliance on certain key members of our management team, including our founder and chief executive officer, Robert J. Pera; adverse tax-related matters such as tax audits, changes in our effective tax rate or new tax legislative proposals; whether the final determination of our income tax liability may be materially different from our income tax provisions; the impact of any intellectual property litigation and claims for indemnification; litigation related to U.S. Securities laws; and economic and political conditions in the United States and abroad.  We discuss these risks in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2016, and subsequent filings filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), which are available at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.  Copies may also be obtained by contacting the Ubiquiti Networks Investor Relations Department, by email at IR@ubnt.com or by visiting the Investor Relations section of the Ubiquiti Networks website, http://ir.ubnt.com. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.  Also, forward-looking statements represent our management's beliefs and assumptions only as of the date made.  Except as required by law, Ubiquiti Networks undertakes no obligation to update information contained herein.  You should review our SEC filings carefully and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. Use of Non-GAAP Financial Information To supplement our condensed consolidated financial results prepared under generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, we use non-GAAP measures of net income and earnings per diluted share that are adjusted to exclude certain costs, expenses and gains such as stock based compensation expense, Business e-mail compromise ("BEC") fraud loss/(recovery), implementation of overhead capitalization, the adoption of ASU 2016-09 Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payments Accounting and the tax effects of these non-GAAP adjustments.  Reconciliations of the adjustments to GAAP results for the three and nine month periods ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 are provided below.  In addition, an explanation of the ways in which management uses non-GAAP financial information to evaluate its business, the substance behind management's decision to use this non-GAAP financial information, material limitations associated with the use of non-GAAP financial information, the manner in which management compensates for those limitations, and the substantive reasons management believes that this non-GAAP financial information provides useful information to investors is included under "About our Non-GAAP Net Income and Adjustments" after the tables below. (1) Derived from audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended June 30, 2016. About our Non-GAAP Net Income and Adjustments Use of Non-GAAP Financial Information To supplement our condensed consolidated financial results prepared under generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, we use non-GAAP measures of net income and earnings per diluted share that are GAAP net income and GAAP earnings per diluted share adjusted to exclude certain costs, expenses and gains/losses. We believe that the presentation of non-GAAP net income and non-GAAP earnings per diluted share provides important supplemental information regarding non-cash expenses, significant items that we believe are important to understanding our financial, and business trends relating to our financial condition and results of operations.  Non-GAAP net income and non-GAAP earnings per diluted share are among the primary indicators used by management as a basis for planning and forecasting future periods and by management and our board of directors to determine whether our operating performance has met specified targets and thresholds.  Management uses non-GAAP net income and non-GAAP earnings per diluted share when evaluating operating performance because it believes that the exclusion of the items described below, for which the amounts or timing may vary significantly depending upon the Company's activities and other factors, facilitates comparability of the Company's operating performance from period to period.  We have chosen to provide this information to investors so they can analyze our operating results in the same way that management does and use this information in their assessment of our business and the valuation of our Company. Use and Economic Substance of Non-GAAP Financial Measures used by Ubiquiti Networks We compute non-GAAP net income and non-GAAP earnings per diluted share by adjusting GAAP net income and GAAP earnings per diluted share to remove the impact of certain adjustments and the tax effect of those adjustments.  Items excluded from net income are: Usefulness of Non-GAAP Financial Information to Investors These non-GAAP measures are not in accordance with, or an alternative to, GAAP and may be materially different from other non-GAAP measures, including similarly titled non-GAAP measures used by other companies.  The presentation of this additional information should not be considered in isolation from, as a substitute for, or superior to, net income or earnings per diluted share prepared in accordance with GAAP.  Non-GAAP financial measures have limitations in that they do not reflect certain items that may have a material impact upon our reported financial results.  We expect to continue to incur expenses of a nature similar to the non-GAAP adjustments described above, and exclusion of these items from our non-GAAP net income and non-GAAP earnings per diluted share should not be construed as an inference that these costs are unusual, infrequent or non-recurring. For more information on the non-GAAP adjustments, please see the table captioned “Reconciliation of GAAP Net Income to Non-GAAP Net Income” included in this press release.


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Winners of the annual Contractor Project of the Year competition were announced today by Sika Roofing, the worldwide market leader in thermoplastic roofing and waterproofing membranes. A winner and two finalists were recognized for outstanding workmanship in four categories - Low Slope, Steep Slope, Waterproofing and Sustainability - for projects completed using a Sika thermoplastic membrane for roofing or waterproofing applications. “Congratulations to the winners of the 2016 Contractor Project of the Year competition,” said Brian J. Whelan, Sika Roofing’s Executive Vice President. “Each entry is judged on project complexity, design uniqueness, craftsmanship, and creative problem solving. We salute the winners for their dedication to the roofing industry and installation excellence.” RSS Roofing Services & Solutions of St. Louis won first place for installing a Sarnafil RhinoBond System at the Department of Energy’s Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Ky. This massive project consisted of 3.2 million square feet of roof area on five separate buildings. The second place winner was Utah Tile & Roofing, Inc., of Salt Lake City for the Peace Coliseum at Overstock’s Corporate Campus, also in Salt Lake City. Third place went to Advanced Roofing Inc., of Fort Lauderdale, Fla., for the National Hurricane Center in Miami. Alliance Roofing Company, Inc., of Santa Clara, Calif., was awarded first place for their work on the beautiful new Endeavor Building at NVIDIA’s Headquarters in Santa Clara. The structure’s distinctive design is based on the triangle, the fundamental building block of computer graphics, and nowhere is that more evident than the complex roof. Midland Engineering Company, Inc., of South Bend, Ind., was the second-place finisher for the Bankers Life Fieldhouse in Indianapolis. Josall Syracuse, Inc., of Syracuse, N.Y., was the third-place finalist for their work on the Onondaga County Water Treatment Plant in Oswego, N.Y. Recover Green Roofs of Somerville, Mass., took first place in the Waterproofing class for their superb work on Harvard Business School’s McArthur Hall/McCollum Center in Boston. The company utilized the Sarnafil G 410 membrane to help create a green roof that has the capability of growing a huge variety of wildflowers and native species that mimic the biology of a natural meadow, self-regenerating with each season. The second-place project was awarded to Nations Roof of Carolina for their impressive green roof on Central Piedmont Community College’s Pease Auditorium, which overlooks the skyline of Charlotte. HRGM Corporation took third place thanks to their work on the Lafayette Elementary School in Washington, D.C. In the Sustainability Category, Sullivan Roofing, Inc., of Schaumburg, Ill., won for the Zurich Insurance North America Headquarters in Schaumburg. This enormous project forced Sullivan Roofing to have three to four crews installing different roofing systems at locations throughout the facility. In second place was Noorda BEC of Salt Lake City for delivering a solar roof with a Sarnafil membrane to the Vivint SmartHome Arena, also in Salt Lake City. In third place for this grouping was BEST Contracting Services, Inc., of Gardena, Calif., for their work on the Los Angeles Convention Center. More than 45 contractors from around the U.S. submitted projects for evaluation in the annual Sika Roofing Project of the Year competition. First place winners were awarded cash prizes, recognition at an awards dinner at the International Roofing Expo and marketing support in the form or advertisements, social media and public relations. Sika is a specialty chemicals company with a leading position in the development and production of systems and products for bonding, sealing, damping, reinforcing and protecting in the building sector and automotive industry. Sika has subsidiaries in 97 countries around the world and manufactures in over 190 factories. Its more than 17,000 employees generated annual sales of CHF 5.75 billion in 2016. For more information about Sika Corporation in the U.S. including Canton, Mass., visit http://usa.sarnafil.sika.com.


Supersolids are defined as systems that spontaneously break two continuous U(1) symmetries: the global phase of the superfluid breaks the internal gauge symmetry, and a density modulation breaks the translational symmetry of space. Starting from superfluid Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs), several forms of supersolidity have been predicted to occur when the condensates feature dipolar interactions13, Rydberg interactions14, superradiant Rayleigh scattering15, nearest-neighbour interaction in lattices16 or spin–orbit interactions5, 6, 7. Work simultaneous with ours used light scattering into two cavities to realize a BEC with supersolid properties17. For fermions, the predicted Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov states have supersolid properties18, 19. Several of these proposals lead to solidity along a single spatial direction maintaining gaseous or liquid-like properties along the other directions. These systems are different from quantum crystals, but share the symmetry-breaking properties. Spin–orbit coupling occurs in solid-state materials when an electron moving at velocity v through an electric field E experiences a Zeeman energy term −μ σ·(v × E) owing to the relativistic transformation of electromagnetic fields. Here σ is the spin vector and μ is the Bohr magneton. The Zeeman term can be written as α v σ /4, where the strength of the coupling α has the units of momentum. The v σ term, together with the transverse magnetic Zeeman term βσ , leads to the Hamiltonian H = ((P  + ασ )2 + P 2 + P 2)/2m + βσ , where m is the atomic mass. A unitary transformation can shift the momenta by ασ , resulting in The second term represents a spin-flip process with a momentum transfer of 2α, which is therefore equivalent to a form of spin–orbit coupling. Such a spin-flip process can be directly implemented for ultracold atoms using a two-photon Raman transition between the two spin states10, 20. Without spin–orbit coupling, a BEC populating two spin states shows no spatial interference, owing to the orthogonality of the states. With spin–orbit coupling, each spin component has now two momentum components (0 and either +2α or −2α, where the sign depends on the initial spin state), which form a stationary spatial interference pattern with a wavevector of 2α (Fig. 1a). Such spatial periodicity of the atomic density can be directly probed with Bragg scattering21, as shown in Fig. 1b. The position of the stripes is determined by the relative phase of the two condensates. This spontaneous phase breaks continuous translational symmetry. The two broken U(1) symmetries are reflected in two long-wavelength collective excitations (the Goldstone modes), one for density (or charge), the other one for spin transport9. Adding a longitudinal Zeeman term δ σ to equation (1) leads to a rich phase diagram6, 22 as a function of δ and β. For sufficiently large , the ground state is in a plane-wave phase. This phase has a roton gap9, 11, which decreases when is reduced, causing a roton instability and leading to a phase transition into the stripe phase. Most experimental studies of spin–orbit coupling with ultracold atoms used two hyperfine ground states coupled by a two-photon Raman spin-flip process10, 11, 12, 23, 24, 25, 26. So far direct evidence of the spatial modulation pattern has been missing, possibly suppressed by stray magnetic fields detuning the Raman transitions and low miscibility between the hyperfine states used (see Methods). Both limitations were recently addressed by a new spin–orbit coupling scheme in which orbital states (the lowest two eigenstates in an asymmetric double-well potential) are used as the pseudospins27. Since the eigenstates mainly populate different wells, their interaction strength g is small and can be adjusted by adjusting their spatial overlap, improving the miscibility (see Methods). Furthermore, since both pseudospin states have the same hyperfine state, there is no sensitivity to magnetic fields. The scheme is realized with a coherently coupled array of double wells using an optical superlattice, a periodic structure with two lattice sites per unit cell with intersite tunnelling J (Fig. 2a). The superlattice has two low-lying bands, split by the energy difference Δ between the double wells, each hosting a BEC in the respective band minima. The BECs in the lower and upper band minima are the pseudospin states in our system. Spin–orbit coupling and the supersolid stripes are created for the free-space motion in the two-dimensional plane orthogonal to the superlattice. The physics in a single two-dimensional plane is not modified in a stack of coherently coupled double wells. However, this increases the signal-to-noise ratio and suppresses the background to the Bragg signal (see below). Experiments started with approximately 1 × 105 23Na atoms forming a BEC loaded into the optical superlattice along the z direction, equally split between the two pseudospin states with a density n ≈ 1.5 × 1014 cm−3. The superlattice consists of laser beams at wavelengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, resulting in a lattice constant of d = 532 nm. Spin–orbit coupling was induced by two infrared (IR) Raman laser beams λ  = 1,064 nm along the x and z axes, providing a momentum transfer ħk  = ħ(k , 0, k ) and spin flip from one well to the other with two-photon Rabi frequency Ω. Here ħk  = 2πħ/λ is the recoil momentum from a single infrared photon (see ref. 27 and Methods). The scheme realizes the spin–orbit Hamiltonian in equation (1) with α = k /2, β =  , and an extra Zeeman term δ σ  = (δ − Δ)/2σ , depending on the Raman-beam detuning δ and the superlattice offset Δ. The parameters J, Ω and Δ are determined from calibration experiments27. A separate laser beam was added in the x–y plane to enable detection of the stripes, which form perpendicularly to the superlattice with a periodicity of approximately 2d = 1,064 nm. Their detection requires near-resonant yellow light (Bragg probe light wavelength λ  = 589 nm) at an incident angle θ = 16°, fulfilling the Bragg condition λ  = 4dsinθ. Figure 1b shows the angular distribution of the Rayleigh-scattered light induced by the 589-nm laser at δ  = 0 in the Bragg direction (see Methods). The spin–orbit coupling leads to supersolid stripes and causes a specular reflection of the Bragg beam, observed as a sharp feature in the angular distribution of the Rayleigh-scattered light (Fig. 1b). The angular width (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM) of the observed peak of 9 ± 1 mrad is consistent with the diffraction limit of λ /D, where D is the FWHM size of the cloud, demonstrating phase coherence of the stripes throughout the whole cloud. This observation of the Bragg-reflected beam is our main result, and constitutes a direct observation of the stripe phase with long-range order. For the same parameters, we observe sharp momentum peaks in time of flight27—the signature of BECs—which implies superfluidity. Our detection of the stripe phase is almost background-free, since all other density modulations have different directions, as depicted in Fig. 2a. The superlattice is orthogonal to the stripes, along the axis. The Raman beams form a moving lattice and create a propagating density modulation at an angle of 45° to the superlattice, parallel to . The pseudospin state in the upper band of the superlattice forms at the minimum of the band at a quasimomentum of q = π/d. The wavevector of the stripes is the sum of this quasimomentum and the momentum transfer that accompanies the spin-flip of the spin–orbit coupling interaction27, resulting in a stripe wavevector in the x direction. Since the difference in the wavevectors between the off-resonant density modulation and the stripes is not a reciprocal lattice vector, the Bragg condition cannot be simultaneously fulfilled for both density modulations. This background-free Bragg detection of the stripes uniquely depends on the realization of a coherent array of planar spin–orbit-coupled systems. For a pure condensate, the contrast of the density modulation is predicted5, 6 to be η = 2β/E , which is about 8% for β ≈ 300 Hz. Here E  = 7.6 kHz is the 23Na recoil energy for a single 1,064-nm photon. A sinusoidal density modulation of ηN (where N is the number of atoms in the BEC) atoms gives rise to a Bragg signal equivalent to γ(ηN )2/4, where γ is the independently measured Rayleigh scattering signal per atom per solid angle, and the factor ¼ is the Debye–Waller factor for a sinusoidal modulation. In Fig. 2b, we observed the expected behaviour of the Bragg signal to be proportional to N 2 with the appropriate pre-factors. The prediction for the signal assumes that the stripes are long-range-ordered throughout the whole cloud. If there were m domains, the signal would be m times smaller. Therefore, the observed strength of the Bragg signals confirms the long-range coherence already implied by the sharpness of the angular Bragg peak. Another way to quantify the Bragg signal is to define the ratio of the peak Bragg intensity to the Rayleigh intensity as ‘gain’, which is calculated to be N (fβ/E )2, where f = N /N is the condensate fraction. The inset of Fig. 2b shows the normalized gain as a function of condensate fraction squared. The linear fit to the data points is consistent with a y-axis intercept of zero. This shows that the observed gain comes only from the superfluid component of the atomic sample. Figure 2c shows that the Bragg signal increases with larger spin–orbit-coupling strength up to β ≈ 300 Hz, and starts to decrease owing to heating from the Raman driving (see Methods). Figure 3a shows the phase diagram for spin–orbit-coupled BECs for the parameters implemented in this work. The stripe phase is wide, owing to the high miscibility of the two orbital pseudospin states. Our spin–orbit coupling scheme and the one previously used10, 11 with 87Rb are complementary. In 87Rb, the phase-separated and the single-minimum states were easily observed10, 11, whereas our scheme favours the stripe phase. Exploring the phase diagram in the vertical direction requires varying δ with the two Raman beams detuned. For δ  = 0, spin–orbit coupling leads to two degenerate spin states. For sufficiently large values of , the ground state is the lower spin state. The vertical width of the stripe phase in Fig. 3a depends on the miscibility of the two spin components6, 22. However, population relaxation between the two spin states is very slow10. For our parameters, the equal population of the two pseudospin states is constant during the lifetime of the system for all detunings studied (up to ±10 kHz). Therefore, detection of the stripes is possible even for large detuning. We observed peaked Bragg reflection at δ  ≈ ±0.7E , which was characterized previously as spin-flip resonances coupling to and to (Fig. 3b). These peaks show that density modulations are resonantly created in either the or states. In addition, we observed a third peak around δ  = 0, where the stripe pattern is stationary. For finite δ , it moves at a velocity of δ /k . Our observation shows that the stationary stripe pattern is either more stable or has higher contrast compared to a moving stripe. Since the tunnel coupling along the superlattice direction is weak (about 1 kHz) it seems possible that the alignment of moving stripe patterns is more sensitive to perturbations than for stationary stripes and leads to a reduced Debye–Waller factor for moving stripes. The periodicity of the supersolid density modulation can depend on external, single-atom, and two-atom parameters. In the present case, the periodicity is given by the wavelength and geometry of the Raman beams. It is then further modified by the spin gap parameter β and the interatomic interactions5, 6 to become 2d/ , where F = (2E  + n(g + g ))/4. For β ≈ 300 Hz, the correction due to the interactions is only 0.4% and was not detected in our work. In contrast, for the dipolar supersolid13 and a quantum crystal with vacancies1, 2, the periodicity dominantly depends on atomic interactions. So far, we have presented a supersolid that breaks the continuous translational symmetry in the free-space x direction (Fig. 2a). Unrelated to the presence of spin–orbit coupling, our superlattice system also breaks a discrete translational symmetry along the lattice direction by forming a spatial period that is twice that of the external lattice owing to the interference between atoms in the two pseudospin states with quasimomentum difference Δq = π/d (Fig. 4a) (see ref. 27). This fulfils the definition of a lattice supersolid19, 28. This 1,064-nm-period density modulation has a maximum amplitude of (J/Δ) and oscillates at frequency 2Δ temporally with spontaneous initial phase and can be detected with the same geometry of the Bragg beam and camera, but rotated to the y–z plane. Figure 4b shows the observed enhanced light scattering due to Bragg reflection. The enhancement was absent immediately after preparing an equal mixture of the two pseudospin states, both in q = 0, and appeared spontaneously after the upper pseudospin state relaxed to the band minimum at q = π/d. With the Bragg pulse duration shorter than 1/(2Δ), the Bragg signal varied between 0% and 100%, depending on the phase of the oscillation of the density modulation when probed. The increased fluctuation in Fig. 4b shows the random nature of the initial phase, which is consistent with spontaneous symmetry breaking. In conclusion, we have observed the long-predicted supersolid stripe phase of spin–orbit-coupled BECs. This realizes a system that simultaneously has off-diagonal and diagonal long-range order. In the future, it will be interesting to characterize this system’s collective excitations9 and to find ways to extend it to two-dimensional spin–orbit coupling, which leads to a different and rich phase diagram29. Another direction for future research is the study of vortices and the effects of impurities and disorder in different phases of spin–orbit-coupled condensates30.


After optically transporting a cold thermal cloud of 87Rb atoms along the x axis31 into the cavity set-up, we optically evaporate to an almost pure BEC with N = 1.05(3) × 105 (here and in the following the value in parentheses denotes one standard deviation) atoms in a dipole trap, which is formed by two orthogonal laser beams at a wavelength of 1,064 nm along the x and y axes. The final trapping frequencies are (ω , ω , ω ) = 2π × (88(1), 76(3), 154(1)) Hz, resulting in Thomas–Fermi radii of (R , R , R ) = (7.9(1), 9.2(1), 4.5(1)) μm. We subsequently expose the atoms to an attractive one-dimensional lattice potential along the y direction by linearly ramping up the transverse pump beam to a lattice depth of 38(1)ħω within 50 ms. The mirror retroreflecting the transverse pump beam is positioned in vacuum at a distance of 8.6 mm from the atomic position. The beam has a 1/e2 radius of (w , w ) = (35(3), 45(3)) μm and is polarized along , parallel to gravity. The wavelength is set to λ  = 785.3 nm, far red-detuned with respect to the atomic D line. We mounted the mirrors forming the Fabry–Perot cavities as close as possible to each other to achieve large vacuum Rabi rates. For two crossing cavities, this required us to specifically machine the substrates before gluing them in place. The two cavities have comparable single-atom vacuum Rabi frequencies of (g , g ) = 2π × (1.95(1), 1.77(1)) MHz and decay rates (κ , κ ) = 2π × (147(4), 800(11)) kHz. The cavity modes intersect at an angle of 60° and have 1/e2 radii of (49(1), 50(1)) μm. We position the atoms vertically in between the two mode axes, so that they are at a distance of 8(2) μm from each mode centre. For each cavity, we individually set the frequency of a longitudinal mode closely detuned with respect to the transverse pump frequency by stabilizing the cavity lengths with a weak stabilization laser beam at 830.4 nm. The resulting additional intracavity lattice potential is incommensurate with the transverse pump wavelength and has a depth of 0.1(1)ħω , which is negligible compared to the self-organization lattice depth in the organized phases of typically (2–4)ħω . Long-term frequency stability between the transverse pump laser and the stabilization laser of around 50 kHz is achieved by locking all of them simultaneously to a passively stable transfer cavity. Single-photon counting modules are used to detect photons leaving the cavities. The lattice depths of the transverse pump and the intracavity lattices are calibrated by performing Raman–Nath diffraction on the cloud. The calibrated intracavity photon number can then be deduced from the vacuum Rabi frequencies of the cavities. We extract overall intracavity photon detection efficiencies of (η , η ) = (9.7(4)%, 2.0(1)%), with relative systematic uncertainties of 8%. The BEC is prepared in the state with respect to the quantization axis along . The birefringences for the two cavities between the H and V eigenmodes are (4.5, 4.8) MHz. Whenever the resonance condition for a two-photon process involving pump and cavities is met, we observe collective Raman transitions between different Zeeman sublevels accompanied by macroscopic occupation of the cavity modes. To suppress such spin-changing scattering processes, all data were taken at a large offset field of B  = 34 G, creating a Zeeman level splitting that is large compared to Δ and the birefringences. We can therefore neglect the presence of the H-polarized eigenmode and solely couple to the V-polarized mode pointing along the z direction. We start with the following many-body Hamiltonian in a frame rotating at the pump laser frequency23: where the index i ∈ {1, 2} labels the two cavities, ħ is the reduced Planck constant, ϕ is the spatial phase of the transverse pump lattice, m is the mass of one Rb atom and (p , p ) its momentum. The integration runs over the area A of the Wigner–Seitz cell with the spatial coordinate r = (x, y). is the two-photon Rabi frequency for cavity i, the potential depths for cavity i and the transverse pump are given by and , respectively. The vacuum Rabi frequencies of the cavities are denoted by g . The standing-wave transverse pump beam at frequency ω with Rabi frequency Ω is red-detuned by Δ  = ω  − ω from the atomic resonance at frequency ω . It is oriented along the y axis with wavevector . The cavities i ∈ {1, 2} at frequencies ω are detuned by Δ  = ω  − ω from the transverse pump frequency and are described by modes and wavevectors . is the atomic field operator that creates (annihilates) a particle at position (x, y). We neglect any cavity decay rate in this part of our formalism as well as the cavity–cavity interference term, which is negligible for the choice of our experimental parameters. The first term of the Hamiltonian describes the energy of the photon fields in the cavities and the kinetic energy of the atoms. The remaining terms take into account the cavity–pump interference terms for the two cavities, the cavity lattices and the pump lattice. The transverse pump lattice beam at wavelength λ  = 2π/k is far red-detuned with respect to atomic resonance, but closely detuned by Δ to the two cavity resonances. Therefore, photons from the transverse pump can be scattered into a cavity mode and back via off-resonant Raman processes. These two-photon processes coherently couple the zero-momentum state of the BEC to the eight momentum states   , which are sketched in Fig. 1c. We neglect scattering processes between the two cavities, and between excited atomic momentum states, because their amplitudes are negligible for our experimental parameters. Because the cavities and the transverse pump are not orthogonal, these eight momentum states group in high- and low-energy states with energies ħω  = 2ħω [1 + cos(60°)] = 3ħω and ħω  = 2ħω [1 − cos(60°)] = ħω . The single-photon recoil frequency is given by ω = ħk2/(2m), with m the atomic mass. As an ansatz for the atomic field operator we choose where represents the BEC zero-momentum mode, and the functions represent the atomic modes with momentum imprinted by one of the scattering processes at high or low energy into one of the two cavities. After carrying out the integration in equation (1) using equation (2), we obtain the effective Hamiltonian where we have introduced the Raman coupling that can be controlled via . The dispersive shift NU /2 is very similar for both cavities and so can be absorbed into Δ . Other optomechanical terms can be discarded for our parameters. Neglecting a difference between the two Raman couplings, as in the Hamiltonian in the main text, leads to only a small correction because the vacuum Rabi frequencies g are similar. Self-organization to a single cavity occurs when the coupling λ crosses the critical coupling  , with  . This crossing is obtained by changing either λ or Δ . The phase boundary between the SO1 and the SO2 phase is identified by the condition , where the coupling to both cavities is symmetric. Including dissipation rates κ for the cavity fields changes the critical couplings into . The Hamiltonian can be read as the sum of two formally identical Hamiltonians for the two cavities, . Both individually manifest parity symmetry, generated by the operator  . They stay unchanged upon the simultaneous transformation on the photonic and atomic field operators32. This symmetry is broken at the phase transition. The choice of sign of the field operators now corresponds to a choice of 0 or π for the phase of the light field in cavity i, which is equivalent to atoms crystallizing on odd or even sites of a chequerboard lattice with rhomboid geometry. For λ  = λ and Δ  = Δ , the Hamiltonian exhibits a U(1) symmetry instead: it is possible to perform a simultaneous rotation by an arbitrary angle θ in the space of the cavity field and atomic field operators that leaves the Hamiltonian unchanged. The transformation acts in the following way on the operators: It shifts photons between the two cavities while simultaneously redistributing the momentum excitations accordingly. This produces the circle on the α –α plot in Fig. 4c. The corresponding generator of the symmetry is the Hermitian operator It satisfies and, as a direct consequence, the Hamiltonian stays unchanged for any θ under the symmetry ; that is, . This symmetry is spontaneously broken at the phase transition. We can obtain the ground state of the effective Hamiltonian by performing a mean-field expansion around the expectation value of each operator and numerically solving the resulting mean-field Hamiltonian33. To get a direct comparison with the experimentally measured data, we plot the order parameters α and α as a function of the two detunings Δ (see Extended Data Fig. 1). The calculation includes cavity decay, the influence of the transverse pump potential and atom–atom contact interactions. The self-consistent potential in the supersolid phase is formed from the interference between the transverse pump field and the two cavity fields. Here we derive the relation between the spatial position of the optical lattice structure and the ratio between the coherent fields α and α in each cavity. The full potential landscape for the atoms is given by the coherent superposition of the transverse pump field and the two cavity fields, where are the potential depths created by each field. We set ϕ  = ϕ  = 0 by choosing the origin of the coordinate system appropriately. The atomic spatial distribution is then determined by the phase ϕ  ≡ ϕ of the transverse pump standing wave, which we can change via a piezo-electric actuator attached to the retroreflecting transverse pump mirror. For our experimental parameters, such that the atoms are separated into two-dimensional layers in the x–z plane at ky + ϕ = πn, , where k = 2π/λ . Tuning the spatial phase ϕ of the transverse pump standing wave results in triangular (ϕ = 0) and hexagonal (ϕ = π/2) lattice geometries (Extended Data Fig. 2). Within one layer we get where Ω  = Ω cosθ and Ω  = Ω sinθ, with θ corresponding to the position on the α –α circle as before. This describes a lattice whose position depends on θ, unless ϕ = 0, in which case only the lattice depth is modified. The lattice depth has a θ modulation that disappears as ϕ approaches π/2, in which case equation (3) simplifies to . We choose ϕ ≈ π/2 in our experiments such that in the broken U(1) symmetry each realization of cavity fields corresponds to a different translation, as shown in Extended Data Fig. 3. Neighbouring layers move in opposite directions so that the translation is staggered. Although the supersolid phase theoretically extends over only a line in the phase diagram, we experimentally observe a finite width of around 100 kHz. We attribute this to two reasons. First, our experimental preparation of a point in the phase diagram has a finite resolution owing to the stability of the transverse pump frequency and the cavity resonance frequency of around 30–50 kHz each. Second, the chemical potential of the cloud limits the resolution with which we can probe the ground state of the system. Close to the U(1)-symmetric line, the two minima of the parity symmetry are only very weakly pronounced. As the chemical potential increases compared to the depth of the minima, the ground-state manifold approaches a U(1) symmetry. To quantify the homogeneity of the U(1) symmetry we analyse the distribution of the obtained angles. Extended Data Fig. 4 shows the histogram of the observed angles in the positive quadrant of the U(1) manifold for three different points across the supersolid phase. Despite the limited sample sizes, a qualitative difference between the histograms is visible. Whereas the data taken in the centre of the supersolid phase show an almost homogeneous distribution, a clear trend towards the effectively more strongly coupled cavity is visible for a positive or negative change in the detuning Δ . All data files are available from the corresponding author on request.


By using lasers to manipulate a superfluid gas known as a Bose-Einstein condensate, the team was able to coax the condensate into a quantum phase of matter that has a rigid structure—like a solid—and can flow without viscosity—a key characteristic of a superfluid. Studies into this apparently contradictory phase of matter could yield deeper insights into superfluids and superconductors, which are important for improvements in technologies such as superconducting magnets and sensors, as well as efficient energy transport. The researchers report their results this week in the journal Nature. "It is counterintuitive to have a material which combines superfluidity and solidity," says team leader Wolfgang Ketterle, the John D. MacArthur Professor of Physics at MIT. "If your coffee was superfluid and you stirred it, it would continue to spin around forever." Physicists had predicted the possibility of supersolids but had not observed them in the lab. They theorized that solid helium could become superfluid if helium atoms could move around in a solid crystal of helium, effectively becoming a supersolid. However, the experimental proof remained elusive. The team used a combination of laser cooling and evaporative cooling methods, originally co-developed by Ketterle, to cool atoms of sodium to nanokelvin temperatures. Atoms of sodium are known as bosons, for their even number of nucleons and electrons. When cooled to near absolute zero, bosons form a superfluid state of dilute gas, called a Bose-Einstein condensate, or BEC. Ketterle co-discovered BECs—a discovery for which he was recognized with the 2001 Nobel Prize in physics. "The challenge was now to add something to the BEC to make sure it developed a shape or form beyond the shape of the 'atom trap,' which is the defining characteristic of a solid," explains Ketterle. To create the supersolid state, the team manipulated the motion of the atoms of the BEC using laser beams, introducing "spin-orbit coupling." In their ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, the team used an initial set of lasers to convert half of the condensate's atoms to a different quantum state, or spin, essentially creating a mixture of two Bose-Einstein condensates. Additional laser beams then transferred atoms between the two condensates, called a "spin flip." "These extra lasers gave the 'spin-flipped' atoms an extra kick to realize the spin-orbit coupling," Ketterle says. Physicists had predicted that a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate would be a supersolid due to a spontaneous "density modulation." Like a crystalline solid, the density of a supersolid is no longer constant and instead has a ripple or wave-like pattern called the "stripe phase." "The hardest part was to observe this density modulation," says Junru Li, an MIT graduate student who worked on the discovery. This observation was accomplished with another laser, the beam of which was diffracted by the density modulation. "The recipe for the supersolid is really simple," Li adds, "but it was a big challenge to precisely align all the laser beams and to get everything stable to observe the stripe phase." Mapping out what is possible in nature Currently, the supersolid only exists at extremely low temperatures under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Going forward, the team plans to carry out further experiments on supersolids and spin-orbit coupling, characterizing and understanding the properties of the new form of matter they created. "With our cold atoms, we are mapping out what is possible in nature," explains Ketterle. "Now that we have experimentally proven that the theories predicting supersolids are correct, we hope to inspire further research, possibly with unanticipated results." Several research groups were working on realizing the first supersolid. In the same issue of Nature, a group in Switzerland reported an alternative way of turning a Bose-Einstein condensate into a supersolid with the help of mirrors, which collected laser light scattering by the atoms. "The simultaneous realization by two groups shows how big the interest is in this new form of matter," says Ketterle. More information: Jun-Ru Li et al. A stripe phase with supersolid properties in spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensates, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature21431


News Article | February 28, 2017
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