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News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.techrepublic.com

Falling for an impostor's email is easier than you might think. Imagine this scenario: You work for a large company that has been involved in acquisitions. Your job is to pay the bills. One morning, you get an email from your CEO who’s travelling. He wants you to do a wire transfer so that he can start the process of acquiring another company. And he doesn’t want you to tell anyone until the deal is done. It’s not uncommon for your CEO to email you about wiring money. And it makes sense that he doesn’t want the news to leak. This is an example of business email compromise (BEC), an attack that has hit more than 22,000 organisations around the world and cost an estimated $3.08 billion since the FBI began tracking it in January 2015. BEC attacks use email to trick people into wiring money or sending sensitive corporate information such as employees’ personal data. Fortunately, you can prevent BEC attacks from succeeding. Consider this guide a starting point. Learn about the factors behind the surge of BEC attacks, what to do if it happens to you, and most important, how to how to avoid falling victim in the first place.


Graphene - Here's What You Should Know Negative mass, a concept that mostly remained in the realm of speculative theories, has been physically observed by scientists from the Washington State University. The concept got traction by enthusiasts who argue that since electric charges can be positive or negative, then the matter can also take up positive or negative mass. Proponents of the existence of negative mass were using it as a tool for interpreting wormholes, which are cosmological tunnels supposed to exist between two points of the universe. The conceptual patronage for wormholes came from physicists such as Ludwig Flamm, Albert Einstein, and Nathan Rosen, who believed that black holes are stretchable and envisaged their inter-linkages with implications of negative mass properties for such transits. A wormhole has no observational evidence to back it. In theory, it is considered the medium of intergalactic travel. However, negative mass completely overturns the conventional laws of motion. The Newton's laws of motion state that when an object is pushed, acceleration works in the direction to which the object has been shoved. "With negative mass, if you push something, it accelerates toward you," said Michael Forbes, a physicist at Washington State University and co-author of the paper. That means an object with negative mass is defying laws of motion, which hold force as a product of mass multiplied by the acceleration (F=ma) of the object, and acting in the reverse direction. The concept of negative mass was fist propounded by physicist Hermann Bondi in a paper published in 1957. He argued that negative mass is a possibility given that there are negative electric charges. In creating the preliminary conditions required for observing negative mass, the team led by Peter Engels of Washington State University (WSU) cooled rubidium atoms just above the temperature of absolute zero, close to -273C for making the Bose-Einstein Condensate. In the BEC state, the particles will move slowly and act like waves in accordance with quantum mechanics. In the superfluid state, the flow will be without loss of energy. In the next step, the researchers used lasers to kick the rubidium atoms back and forth for making changes in the way they were spinning. The BEC, when agitated by lasers showed a tendency to rush out of the web with negative mass. "Once you push, it accelerates backward," said Forbes and noted the rubidium was behaving as if it was hitting an invisible wall. After releasing atoms from the laser trap, they were found expanding and displaying negative mass properties. In the experiment, the WSU researchers made sure that past defects did not constrain the experiment as in previous attempts while trying to understand negative mass. "What's a first here is the exquisite control we have over the nature of this negative mass, without any other complications," said Forbes. The new research is expected to trigger more studies in astrophysics, neutron stars, dark energy, and black holes. Forbes said the experiment will provide the right guidance for environments in studying the peculiar phenomenon. The study has been published in the Physical Review Letters. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - 2 mai 2017) - Don Head, commissaire du Service correctionnel du Canada (SCC), a fait la déclaration suivante au sujet du dépôt du rapport intitulé Issue fatale : Enquête sur le décès évitable de Matthew Ryan Hines, du Bureau de l'enquêteur correctionnel (BEC). « Au nom du Service correctionnel du Canada (SCC), je tiens à exprimer nos plus profondes et sincères condoléances à la famille et aux amis de Matthew Hines relativement au décès tragique de leur être cher. Je tiens aussi à présenter nos excuses à la famille de M. Hines pour l'inexactitude de l'information transmise au moment de son décès. Nos pensées restent avec eux tandis que nous nous efforçons d'apporter des changements importants en réaction aux enjeux qui ont contribué au décès de M. Hines. Nous reconnaissons qu'il y avait des questions très préoccupantes en ce qui a trait au recours à la force contre M. Hines et à l'ensemble de la réaction à la situation d'urgence médicale qui a entraîné son décès. Le décès de M. Hines, comme tous les décès en établissement, est une tragédie, qui dans son cas aurait pu être évitée s'il y avait eu une série d'interventions différentes le 26 mai 2015. Nous tenons à assurer à la famille et aux amis de M. Hines, et à tous les Canadiens, que le SCC prend tous les cas de décès en établissement au sérieux et que nous avons à cœur de faire en sorte que les leçons importantes tirées de son décès soient dorénavant intégrées à notre réaction à des situations semblables. Le rapport de l'enquêteur correctionnel fournit des renseignements supplémentaires et des recommandations qui viendront s'ajouter à notre plan d'action continu et aux mesures correctives que nous avons déjà prises à la suite du dépôt du rapport du comité d'enquête sur le décès de M. Hines. Au nom du SCC, j'accepte les recommandations formulées par le BEC. Notre réponse rend compte de notre détermination à tirer des leçons du décès de M. Hines et à constamment nous efforcer d'améliorer nos interventions en cas d'urgence médicale. Mon équipe de la haute direction et moi-même continuons de travailler en collaboration à l'échelle nationale, régionale et des établissements pour respecter les engagements cernés dans notre plan d'action sur le décès de M. Hines. Par exemple, nous avons mis à jour nos politiques et amélioré nos programmes de formation, y compris l'ajout de nouveaux exercices de simulation fondés sur certains facteurs précis du dossier. Nous savons qu'il reste du travail à faire pour prévenir les décès en établissement. Notre réponse au rapport du BEC nous permettra, concrètement, de voir à ce que les réactions aux situations d'urgence médicale soient plus rapides et appropriées et à ce qu'elles visent avant tout à protéger la vie. Le SCC continuera de faire tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour apporter les améliorations nécessaires et de veiller à ce que tous les membres du personnel et les nouveaux employés comprennent bien les obligations que leur imposent la loi et les politiques. » Réponse du Service correctionnel du Canada au rapport Issue fatale : Enquête sur le décès évitable de Matthew Ryan Hines Issue fatale : Enquête sur le décès évitable de Matthew Ryan Hines Compte Flickr du SCC - Pénitencier de Dorchester Suivez le Service correctionnel du Canada (@SCC_CSC_fr) sur Twitter. Pour plus d'information, visitez le site Web suivant : www.csc-scc.gc.ca.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The quantum world is both elegant and mysterious. It is a sphere of existence where the laws of physics experienced in everyday life are broken--particles can exist in two places at once, they can react to each other over vast distances, and they themselves seem confused over whether they are particles or waves. For those not involved in the field, this world may seem trifling, but recently, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have theoretically described two quantum states that are extraordinary in both the physics that define them and their visual appeal: a complex quantum system that simulates classical physics and a spellbinding necklace-like state. Their study is published in the journal Physical Review A. The quest for these states begins with a doughnut, or rather, a doughnut-shaped container housing a rotating superfluid. This superfluid, which is a fluid that moves with no friction, is made of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) comprising particles with no charge that are cooled to near-zero degrees kelvin, a temperature so cold, that it does not exist in the universe outside of laboratories. At this temperature, particles begin to exhibit strange properties--they clump together, and eventually become indistinguishable from one another. In effect, they become a single entity and thus move as one. Since this whirling BEC superfluid is operating at a quantum scale, where tiny distances and low temperatures reign, the physical characteristics of its rotation are not those seen in the classical world. Consider a father who is swinging his daughter around in a circle by the arms. Classical physics mandates that the child's legs will move faster than her hands around the circle, since her legs must travel further to make a complete turn. In the world of quantum physics the relationship is the opposite. "In a superfluid...things which are very far away [from the center] move really slowly, whereas things [that] are close to the center move very fast," explains OIST Professor Thomas Busch, one of the researchers involved in the study. This is what is happening in the superfluid doughnut. In addition, the superfluid inside of the doughnut shows a uniform density profile, meaning that it is distributed around the doughnut evenly. This would be the same for most liquids that are rotating via classical or quantum rules. But what happens if another type of BEC is added, one that is made from a different atomic species and that cannot mix with the original BEC? Like oil and water, the two components will separate in a way that minimizes the area in which they are touching and form two semicircles on opposite sides of the doughnut container. "The shortest boundary [between the components] is in the radial direction," Dr. Angela White, first author on the study, explains. The two components separate into different halves of the doughnut along this boundary, which is created by passing through the doughnut's radius. In this configuration, they will use less energy to remain separated than they would via any other. In the immiscible, or unmixable, configuration shown in Figure 1, the quantum world surprises. Since the boundary between the two superfluids must remain aligned along the radial direction, the superfluid present at this boundary must rotate like a classical object. This happens in order to maintain that low-energy state. If at the boundary the superfluids continued to rotate faster on the inside, then the two semicircles would start to twist, elongating the line that separates them, and thus requiring more energy to stay separated. The result is a sort of classical physics mimicry, where the system appears to jump into the classical realm, facilitated by complex quantum mechanical behavior. At this stage, the superfluid doughnut has reached its first extraordinary state which is one that mimics classical rotation. But there is one more step needed to transform this already mind-boggling system into the necklace end-goal: spin-orbit coupling. "In a very abstract way, [spin is] just a thing that has two possible states," Busch explains. "It can be this way or it can be that way." For this experiment, which involves particles that have no charge, or no spin, the researchers "faked" a spin by assigning a "this or that" property to their particles. When coupling the particles based on this property, the two semicircles inside of the doughnut break into multiple alternating parts, thus forming the necklace configuration (Figure 2). By digging further into its composition, the researchers found that the number of "pearls" in the necklace depends on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and, more surprisingly, that there must always be an odd number of these pearls. Researchers have predicted quantum necklaces before, but they were known to be unstable--expanding or dissipating themselves to oblivion only a short time after being created. In this theoretical model, the OIST researchers believe they have found a way to create a stable necklace, one that would allow for more time to study it and appreciate its refined majesty.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

The quantum world is both elegant and mysterious. It is a sphere of existence where the laws of physics experienced in everyday life are broken--particles can exist in two places at once, they can react to each other over vast distances, and they themselves seem confused over whether they are particles or waves. For those not involved in the field, this world may seem trifling, but recently, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have theoretically described two quantum states that are extraordinary in both the physics that define them and their visual appeal: a complex quantum system that simulates classical physics and a spellbinding necklace-like state. Their study is published in the journal Physical Review A. The quest for these states begins with a doughnut, or rather, a doughnut-shaped container housing a rotating superfluid. This superfluid, which is a fluid that moves with no friction, is made of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) comprising particles with no charge that are cooled to near-zero degrees kelvin, a temperature so cold, that it does not exist in the universe outside of laboratories. At this temperature, particles begin to exhibit strange properties--they clump together, and eventually become indistinguishable from one another. In effect, they become a single entity and thus move as one. Since this whirling BEC superfluid is operating at a quantum scale, where tiny distances and low temperatures reign, the physical characteristics of its rotation are not those seen in the classical world. Consider a father who is swinging his daughter around in a circle by the arms. Classical physics mandates that the child's legs will move faster than her hands around the circle, since her legs must travel further to make a complete turn. In the world of quantum physics the relationship is the opposite. "In a superfluid...things which are very far away [from the center] move really slowly, whereas things [that] are close to the center move very fast," explains OIST Professor Thomas Busch, one of the researchers involved in the study. This is what is happening in the superfluid doughnut. In addition, the superfluid inside of the doughnut shows a uniform density profile, meaning that it is distributed around the doughnut evenly. This would be the same for most liquids that are rotating via classical or quantum rules. But what happens if another type of BEC is added, one that is made from a different atomic species and that cannot mix with the original BEC? Like oil and water, the two components will separate in a way that minimizes the area in which they are touching and form two semicircles on opposite sides of the doughnut container. "The shortest boundary [between the components] is in the radial direction," Dr. Angela White, first author on the study, explains. The two components separate into different halves of the doughnut along this boundary, which is created by passing through the doughnut's radius. In this configuration, they will use less energy to remain separated than they would via any other. In the immiscible, or unmixable, configuration shown in Figure 1, the quantum world surprises. Since the boundary between the two superfluids must remain aligned along the radial direction, the superfluid present at this boundary must rotate like a classical object. This happens in order to maintain that low-energy state. If at the boundary the superfluids continued to rotate faster on the inside, then the two semicircles would start to twist, elongating the line that separates them, and thus requiring more energy to stay separated. The result is a sort of classical physics mimicry, where the system appears to jump into the classical realm, facilitated by complex quantum mechanical behavior. At this stage, the superfluid doughnut has reached its first extraordinary state which is one that mimics classical rotation. But there is one more step needed to transform this already mind-boggling system into the necklace end-goal: spin-orbit coupling. "In a very abstract way, [spin is] just a thing that has two possible states," Busch explains. "It can be this way or it can be that way." For this experiment, which involves particles that have no charge, or no spin, the researchers "faked" a spin by assigning a "this or that" property to their particles. When coupling the particles based on this property, the two semicircles inside of the doughnut break into multiple alternating parts, thus forming the necklace configuration (Figure 2). By digging further into its composition, the researchers found that the number of "pearls" in the necklace depends on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and, more surprisingly, that there must always be an odd number of these pearls. Researchers have predicted quantum necklaces before, but they were known to be unstable--expanding or dissipating themselves to oblivion only a short time after being created. In this theoretical model, the OIST researchers believe they have found a way to create a stable necklace, one that would allow for more time to study it and appreciate its refined majesty.


News Article | June 14, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

BEC (Systems Integration) Ltd, a leading provider of automated data capture and voice solutions for use within the supply chain, logistics and manufacturing industries, has formed a partnership with Kellton Tech, a global leader in digital transformation with astrongexpertise in enterprise solutions. The partnership will help infuse SAP’s latest capabilities into BEC’s solutions, enabling them to successfullyimplement S/4 HANA migration. Based on its eSmart® Data Capture software suite, BEC’s innovative solutions leverage the power of ERP to deliver improved accuracy and productivity within its clients’warehouse, distribution centre and manufacturing departments. With a strong emphasis on voice-based technology, BEC’s solutions are totally flexible andare able to accommodate the specific data capture needs of any business, helping to streamline processes, increase accuracy and efficiency and ultimately cut costs. Established almost 25 years ago, BEC’s consultative approach and strong industry knowledge have enabled its customers to leverage the latest best-of-breed products, software and services to maximise their output; a skill which has harnessed an impressive list of clients which includes Raleigh, Haribo, Estee Lauder, Malcolm Group, Baxters and Kerrygold. BEC is also a member of GS1, the global standards agency for barcoding, and boasts a team of GS1-certified consultants, encompassing decades of experience in seamlessly integrating and developing data capture software solutionsto various business hosts, including SAP. Tony Hampson, Managing Director at BEC, comments, “Kellton Tech is a pioneer in the SAP services space due to its breadth and depth of services and global leadership in digital transformation. We look forward to harnessing Kellton Tech’s SAP expertise and global footprint to enhance our implementation services and solution delivery to our clients.” Kellton Tech’s expertise in SAP continues to grow from strength to strength. A certified SAP Gold Partner, it ranks among the top 3% of partners in North America to earn re-certification as a SAP Partner Center of Expertise. In a development that is representative of its cutting-edge expertise in SAP, Kellton Tech was selected to develop a video serieson migration, from SAP ECC to S/4HANA 1610. As one of the first organisations to implement S/4 HANA when it was released in 2015, and among the few to possess SAP Hybris expertise, Kellton Tech is uniquely-qualified in the SAP implementation business. Expressing his delight on the partnership, Gerard Eivers, General Manager – Europe at Kellton Tech, comments, “We have always admired BEC’s innovative solutions and are happy to thus empower their ability to deliver better strategic value to their customers. Kellton Tech’s SAP implementation capabilities have been the key pillar for many enterprises, from startups to Fortune 500 companies for driving digital transformation of their systems.We are committed to leveraging SAP’s innovations, including S/4 HANA and Hybris, to enable enterprises to benefit from operational synergies and real-time insights through enterprise-wide integration.” About Kellton Tech Solutions Ltd. Kellton Tech Solutions Limited is a public listed (BSE& NSE: KELLTONTEC), CMMi Level 3 and ISO 9001:2008 certified global IT services organization. It is headquartered in Hyderabad, India and has development centers in the United States, Europe and India. For two innovative decades, Kellton Tech has put into practice the vision upon which it was founded viz. "to offer infinite possibilities with technology". The company is committed to providing end-to-end IT solutions, strategic technology consulting, and offshore product development services. Kellton Tech serves the full gamut of customers including startups, SMBs, enterprises, and Fortune 500 businesses. The organization has serviced customers representing a wide range of verticals including retail, travel, e-commerce, education, hospitality, advertising, market research, manufacturing, consumer goods, logistics, SCM, and non-profits. Kellton Tech is also a global leader in providing Enterprise Mobility Solutions, Mobile Application Development, Enterprise Solutions &Internet of Things. About BEC (Systems Integration) Ltd. BEC (Systems Integration) Ltd is a specialist provider of Automated Data Capture solutions for use in the supply chain and manufacturing industry. With the aim of removing costs from your businesses, BEC offers a comprehensive set of services from initial consultation, advice and design, through to delivery, implementation and after-sales support. Offering access to a range of cutting-edge data collection products, including voice-directed technologies, BEC’s future-proof solutions integrate seamlessly into any host system to fulfil business and commercial requirements. Having delivered the first integrated voice-directed picking solution for Lawson/Info M3, BEC is also a Total Solutions Partner of Vocollect, the world leader in voice-based solutions for mobile workers. Through the development of impressive and innovative product handling solutions with voice technology at their core, BEC has helped businesses within the manufacturing, engineering and food and beverage industries improve upon their accuracy, productivity and customer service. For more information about BEC please visit http://www.becsi.co.uk


Figure 1: Density profile of two superfluid components that either mix (left) or do not mix (right). In a rotating superfluid with two components that are miscible, or mixable, the matter will be distributed evenly within the doughnut-shaped container. This is the same density profile seen in a rotating, single-component superfluid. When the two components are immiscible, or not mixable, they will separate from each other and form two semicircle clumps on opposite sides. Credit: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology The quantum world is both elegant and mysterious. It is a sphere of existence where the laws of physics experienced in everyday life are broken—particles can exist in two places at once, they can react to each other over vast distances, and they themselves seem confused over whether they are particles or waves. For those not involved in the field, this world may seem trifling, but recently, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have theoretically described two quantum states that are extraordinary in both the physics that define them and their visual appeal: a complex quantum system that simulates classical physics and a spellbinding necklace-like state. Their study is published in the journal Physical Review A. The quest for these states begins with a doughnut, or rather, a doughnut-shaped container housing a rotating superfluid. This superfluid, which is a fluid that moves with no friction, is made of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) comprising particles with no charge that are cooled to near-zero degrees kelvin, a temperature so cold, that it does not exist in the universe outside of laboratories. At this temperature, particles begin to exhibit strange properties—they clump together, and eventually become indistinguishable from one another. In effect, they become a single entity and thus move as one. Since this whirling BEC superfluid is operating at a quantum scale, where tiny distances and low temperatures reign, the physical characteristics of its rotation are not those seen in the classical world. Consider a father who is swinging his daughter around in a circle by the arms. Classical physics mandates that the child's legs will move faster than her hands around the circle, since her legs must travel further to make a complete turn. In the world of quantum physics the relationship is the opposite. "In a superfluid…things which are very far away [from the center] move really slowly, whereas things [that] are close to the center move very fast," explains OIST Professor Thomas Busch, one of the researchers involved in the study. This is what is happening in the superfluid doughnut. In addition, the superfluid inside of the doughnut shows a uniform density profile, meaning that it is distributed around the doughnut evenly. This would be the same for most liquids that are rotating via classical or quantum rules. But what happens if another type of BEC is added, one that is made from a different atomic species and that cannot mix with the original BEC? Like oil and water, the two components will separate in a way that minimizes the area in which they are touching and form two semicircles on opposite sides of the doughnut container. "The shortest boundary [between the components] is in the radial direction," Dr. Angela White, first author on the study, explains. The two components separate into different halves of the doughnut along this boundary, which is created by passing through the doughnut's radius. In this configuration, they will use less energy to remain separated than they would via any other. In the immiscible, or unmixable, configuration shown in Figure 1, the quantum world surprises. Since the boundary between the two superfluids must remain aligned along the radial direction, the superfluid present at this boundary must rotate like a classical object. This happens in order to maintain that low-energy state. If at the boundary the superfluids continued to rotate faster on the inside, then the two semicircles would start to twist, elongating the line that separates them, and thus requiring more energy to stay separated. The result is a sort of classical physics mimicry, where the system appears to jump into the classical realm, facilitated by complex quantum mechanical behavior. At this stage, the superfluid doughnut has reached its first extraordinary state which is one that mimics classical rotation. But there is one more step needed to transform this already mind-boggling system into the necklace end-goal: spin-orbit coupling. "In a very abstract way, [spin is] just a thing that has two possible states," Busch explains. "It can be this way or it can be that way." For this experiment, which involves particles that have no charge, or no spin, the researchers "faked" a spin by assigning a "this or that" property to their particles. When coupling the particles based on this property, the two semicircles inside of the doughnut break into multiple alternating parts, thus forming the necklace configuration (Figure 2). By digging further into its composition, the researchers found that the number of "pearls" in the necklace depends on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and, more surprisingly, that there must always be an odd number of these pearls. Researchers have predicted quantum necklaces before, but they were known to be unstable—expanding or dissipating themselves to oblivion only a short time after being created. In this theoretical model, the OIST researchers believe they have found a way to create a stable necklace, one that would allow for more time to study it and appreciate its refined majesty. Explore further: Bridging the gap between the quantum and classical worlds More information: Angela C. White et al. Odd-petal-number states and persistent flows in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, Physical Review A (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.041604


Abstract: The quantum world is both elegant and mysterious. It is a sphere of existence where the laws of physics experienced in everyday life are broken--particles can exist in two places at once, they can react to each other over vast distances, and they themselves seem confused over whether they are particles or waves. For those not involved in the field, this world may seem trifling, but recently, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have theoretically described two quantum states that are extraordinary in both the physics that define them and their visual appeal: a complex quantum system that simulates classical physics and a spellbinding necklace-like state. Their study is published in the journal Physical Review A. The quest for these states begins with a doughnut, or rather, a doughnut-shaped container housing a rotating superfluid. This superfluid, which is a fluid that moves with no friction, is made of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) comprising particles with no charge that are cooled to near-zero degrees kelvin, a temperature so cold, that it does not exist in the universe outside of laboratories. At this temperature, particles begin to exhibit strange properties--they clump together, and eventually become indistinguishable from one another. In effect, they become a single entity and thus move as one. Since this whirling BEC superfluid is operating at a quantum scale, where tiny distances and low temperatures reign, the physical characteristics of its rotation are not those seen in the classical world. Consider a father who is swinging his daughter around in a circle by the arms. Classical physics mandates that the child's legs will move faster than her hands around the circle, since her legs must travel further to make a complete turn. In the world of quantum physics the relationship is the opposite. "In a superfluid...things which are very far away [from the center] move really slowly, whereas things [that] are close to the center move very fast," explains OIST Professor Thomas Busch, one of the researchers involved in the study. This is what is happening in the superfluid doughnut. In addition, the superfluid inside of the doughnut shows a uniform density profile, meaning that it is distributed around the doughnut evenly. This would be the same for most liquids that are rotating via classical or quantum rules. But what happens if another type of BEC is added, one that is made from a different atomic species and that cannot mix with the original BEC? Like oil and water, the two components will separate in a way that minimizes the area in which they are touching and form two semicircles on opposite sides of the doughnut container. "The shortest boundary [between the components] is in the radial direction," Dr. Angela White, first author on the study, explains. The two components separate into different halves of the doughnut along this boundary, which is created by passing through the doughnut's radius. In this configuration, they will use less energy to remain separated than they would via any other. In the immiscible, or unmixable, configuration shown in Figure 1, the quantum world surprises. Since the boundary between the two superfluids must remain aligned along the radial direction, the superfluid present at this boundary must rotate like a classical object. This happens in order to maintain that low-energy state. If at the boundary the superfluids continued to rotate faster on the inside, then the two semicircles would start to twist, elongating the line that separates them, and thus requiring more energy to stay separated. The result is a sort of classical physics mimicry, where the system appears to jump into the classical realm, facilitated by complex quantum mechanical behavior. At this stage, the superfluid doughnut has reached its first extraordinary state which is one that mimics classical rotation. But there is one more step needed to transform this already mind-boggling system into the necklace end-goal: spin-orbit coupling. "In a very abstract way, [spin is] just a thing that has two possible states," Busch explains. "It can be this way or it can be that way." For this experiment, which involves particles that have no charge, or no spin, the researchers "faked" a spin by assigning a "this or that" property to their particles. When coupling the particles based on this property, the two semicircles inside of the doughnut break into multiple alternating parts, thus forming the necklace configuration (Figure 2). By digging further into its composition, the researchers found that the number of "pearls" in the necklace depends on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and, more surprisingly, that there must always be an odd number of these pearls. Researchers have predicted quantum necklaces before, but they were known to be unstable--expanding or dissipating themselves to oblivion only a short time after being created. In this theoretical model, the OIST researchers believe they have found a way to create a stable necklace, one that would allow for more time to study it and appreciate its refined majesty. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

The quantum world is both elegant and mysterious. It is a sphere of existence where the laws of physics experienced in everyday life are broken -- particles can exist in two places at once, they can react to each other over vast distances, and they themselves seem confused over whether they are particles or waves. For those not involved in the field, this world may seem trifling, but recently, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have theoretically described two quantum states that are extraordinary in both the physics that define them and their visual appeal: a complex quantum system that simulates classical physics and a spellbinding necklace-like state. Their study is published in the journal Physical Review A. The quest for these states begins with a doughnut, or rather, a doughnut-shaped container housing a rotating superfluid. This superfluid, which is a fluid that moves with no friction, is made of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) comprising particles with no charge that are cooled to near-zero degrees kelvin, a temperature so cold, that it does not exist in the universe outside of laboratories. At this temperature, particles begin to exhibit strange properties -- they clump together, and eventually become indistinguishable from one another. In effect, they become a single entity and thus move as one. Since this whirling BEC superfluid is operating at a quantum scale, where tiny distances and low temperatures reign, the physical characteristics of its rotation are not those seen in the classical world. Consider a father who is swinging his daughter around in a circle by the arms. Classical physics mandates that the child's legs will move faster than her hands around the circle, since her legs must travel further to make a complete turn. In the world of quantum physics the relationship is the opposite. "In a superfluid...things which are very far away [from the center] move really slowly, whereas things [that] are close to the center move very fast," explains OIST Professor Thomas Busch, one of the researchers involved in the study. This is what is happening in the superfluid doughnut. In addition, the superfluid inside of the doughnut shows a uniform density profile, meaning that it is distributed around the doughnut evenly. This would be the same for most liquids that are rotating via classical or quantum rules. But what happens if another type of BEC is added, one that is made from a different atomic species and that cannot mix with the original BEC? Like oil and water, the two components will separate in a way that minimizes the area in which they are touching and form two semicircles on opposite sides of the doughnut container. "The shortest boundary [between the components] is in the radial direction," Dr. Angela White, first author on the study, explains. The two components separate into different halves of the doughnut along this boundary, which is created by passing through the doughnut's radius. In this configuration, they will use less energy to remain separated than they would via any other. In the immiscible, or unmixable, configuration, the quantum world surprises. Since the boundary between the two superfluids must remain aligned along the radial direction, the superfluid present at this boundary must rotate like a classical object. This happens in order to maintain that low-energy state. If at the boundary the superfluids continued to rotate faster on the inside, then the two semicircles would start to twist, elongating the line that separates them, and thus requiring more energy to stay separated. The result is a sort of classical physics mimicry, where the system appears to jump into the classical realm, facilitated by complex quantum mechanical behavior. At this stage, the superfluid doughnut has reached its first extraordinary state which is one that mimics classical rotation. But there is one more step needed to transform this already mind-boggling system into the necklace end-goal: spin-orbit coupling. "In a very abstract way, [spin is] just a thing that has two possible states," Busch explains. "It can be this way or it can be that way." For this experiment, which involves particles that have no charge, or no spin, the researchers "faked" a spin by assigning a "this or that" property to their particles. When coupling the particles based on this property, the two semicircles inside of the doughnut break into multiple alternating parts, thus forming the necklace configuration. By digging further into its composition, the researchers found that the number of "pearls" in the necklace depends on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and, more surprisingly, that there must always be an odd number of these pearls. Researchers have predicted quantum necklaces before, but they were known to be unstable -- expanding or dissipating themselves to oblivion only a short time after being created. In this theoretical model, the OIST researchers believe they have found a way to create a stable necklace, one that would allow for more time to study it and appreciate its refined majesty.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

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