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Royal Oak, MI, United States

Franklin B.A.,Beaumont Health Center | Franklin B.A.,Oakland University | Billecke S.,Heart Health
Current Sports Medicine Reports | Year: 2012

Although considerable epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that structured exercise, increased lifestyle activity, or both are cardioprotective, the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal complications appear to increase transiently during vigorous physical activity. The estimated relative risk of exercise-related cardiac events ranges from 2.1 to 56 and is highest among habitually sedentary individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease who were performing unaccustomed vigorous physical exertion. Moreover, an estimated 7million Americans receive medical attention for sports and recreation-related injuries each year. These risks, and their modulators, should be considered when endorsing strenuous leisure time or exercise interventions. If the current mantra "exercise is medicine" is embraced, underdosing and overdosing are possible. Thus, exercise may have a typical dose-response curvewith a plateau in benefit or even adverse effects, in some individuals, at more extreme levels. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Williams P.T.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Franklin B.A.,Beaumont Health Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Purpose:Walking is purported to reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation by 48%, whereas jogging is purported to increase its risk by 53%, suggesting a strong anti-arrhythmic benefit of walking over running. The purpose of these analyses is to compare incident self-reported physician-diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia to baseline energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent hours per day, METhr/d) from walking, running and other exercise.Methods:Proportional hazards analysis of 14,734 walkers and 32,073 runners.Results:There were 1,060 incident cardiac arrhythmias (412 walkers, 648 runners) during 6.2 years of follow-up. The risk for incident cardiac arrhythmias declined 4.4% per baseline METhr/d walked by the walkers, or running in the runners (P = 0.0001). Specifically, the risk declined 14.2% (hazard ratio: 0.858) for 1.8 to 3.6 METhr/d, 26.5% for 3.6 to 5.4 METhr/d, and 31.7% for ≥5.4 METhr/d, relative to <1.8 METhr/d. The risk reduction per METhr/d was significantly greater for walking than running (P<0.01), but only because walkers were at 34% greater risk than runners who fell below contemporary physical activity guideline recommendations; otherwise the walkers and runners had similar risks for cardiac arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias were unrelated to walking and running intensity, and unrelated to marathon participation and performance.Conclusions:The risk for cardiac arrhythmias was similar in walkers and runners who expended comparable METhr/d during structured exercise. We found no significant risk increase for self-reported cardiac arrhythmias associated with running distance, exercise intensity, or marathon participation. Rhythm abnormalities were based on self-report, precluding definitive categorization of the nature of the rhythm disturbance. However, even if the runners' arrhythmias include sinus bradycardia due to running itself, there was no increase in arrhythmias with greater running distance. Source

Franklin B.A.,Beaumont Health Center | Durstine J.L.,University of South Carolina | Roberts C.K.,University of California at Los Angeles | Barnard R.J.,University of California at Los Angeles
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Unfortunately, many patients as well as the medical community, continue to rely on coronary revascularization procedures and cardioprotective medications as a first-line strategy to stabilize or favorably modify established risk factors and the course of coronary artery disease. However, these therapies do not address the root of the problem, that is, the most proximal risk factors for heart disease, including unhealthy dietary practices, physical inactivity, and cigarette smoking. We argue that more emphasis must be placed on novel approaches to embrace current primary and secondary prevention guidelines, which requires attacking conventional risk factors and their underlying environmental causes. The impact of lifestyle on the risk of cardiovascular disease has been well established in clinical trials, but these results are often overlooked and underemphasized. Considerable data also strongly support the role of lifestyle intervention to improve glucose and insulin homeostasis, as well as physical inactivity and/or low aerobic fitness. Accordingly, intensive diet and exercise interventions can be highly effective in facilitating coronary risk reduction, complementing and enhancing medications, and in some instances, even outperforming drug therapy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sallis R.,Kaiser Permanente | Franklin B.,Beaumont Health Center | Joy L.,Intermountain Healthcare | Ross R.,Queens University | Stone J.,University of Calgary
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

The time has come for healthcare systems to take an active role in the promotion of physical activity (PA). The connection between PA and health has been clearly established and exercise should be viewed as a cost effective medication that is universally prescribed as a first line treatment for virtually every chronic disease. While there are potential risks associated with exercise, these can be minimized with a proper approach and are far outweighed by the benefits. Key to promoting PA in the clinical setting is the use of a PA Vital Sign in which every patient's exercise habits are assessed and recorded in their medical record. Those not meeting the recommended 150. min per week of moderate intensity PA should be encouraged to increase their PA levels with a proper exercise prescription. We can improve compliance by assessing our patient's barriers to being more active and employing new and evolving technology like accelerometers and smart phones applications, along with various websites and programs that have proven efficacy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Riebe D.,University of Rhode Island | Franklin B.A.,Beaumont Health Center | Thompson P.D.,Hartford Hospital | Garber C.E.,Columbia University | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2015

The purpose of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) exercise preparticipation health screening process is to identify individuals who may be at elevated risk for exercise-related sudden cardiac death and/or acute myocardial infarction. Recent studies have suggested that using the current ACSM exercise preparticipation health screening guidelines can result in excessive physician referrals, possibly creating a barrier to exercise participation. In addition, there is considerable evidence that exercise is safe for most people and has many associated health and fitness benefits; exercise-related cardiovascular events are often preceded by warning signs/symptoms; and the cardiovascular risks associated with exercise lessen as individuals become more physically active/fit. Consequently, a scientific roundtable was convened by the ACSM in June 2014 to evaluate the current exercise preparticipation health screening recommendations. The roundtable proposed a new evidence-informed model for exercise preparticipation health screening on the basis of three factors: 1) the individual's current level of physical activity, 2) presence of signs or symptoms and/or known cardiovascular, metabolic, or renal disease, and 3) desired exercise intensity, as these variables have been identified as risk modulators of exercise-related cardiovascular events. Identifying cardiovascular disease risk factors remains an important objective of overall disease prevention and management, but risk factor profiling is no longer included in the exercise preparticipation health screening process. The new ACSM exercise preparticipation health screening recommendations reduce possible unnecessary barriers to adopting and maintaining a regular exercise program, a lifestyle of habitual physical activity, or both, and thereby emphasize the important public health message that regular physical activity is important for all individuals. © 2015 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

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