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Port Glasgow, United Kingdom

Barrett S.,Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Center
Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh | Year: 2010

Breast cancer is now the most common cancer of women in the UK and incidence is increasing. Because of major treatment advances and earlier diagnosis over the past 40 years, survival rates have been improving gradually and women diagnosed with breast cancer today are almost twice as likely to survive for 10 years or longer as women 40 years ago. However, breast cancer remains a major contributor to cancer morbidity and mortality in the UK. The majority of patients present with potentially curative disease and surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Many patients receive adjuvant (post-operative) therapy, which reduces the risk of loco-regional and distant disease recurrence. Treatment options include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and biological agents, with treatment increasingly tailored to the individual tumour and patient, aiming to provide maximum survival benefit with minimum toxicity. Many patients participate in clinical trials of radiotherapy, new agents, drug combinations or novel dosing regimens. Patients with metastatic disease can rarely be offered curative treatment, but improved quality of life and prolonged survival may be achieved with palliative treatment, including hormones, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, trastuzumab and bisphosphonates. This overview aims to summarise current knowledge and recent developments in the management of breast cancer. © 2010 Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Source

Graham J.S.,Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Center | Cassidy J.,University of Glasgow
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2012

Huge advances have been made in the treatment of colon cancer over the last decade. Success has been most noticeable in stage IV disease - where careful selection of patients with small-volume disease for treatment with surgical resection ± perioperative chemotherapy has resulted in an improvement in survival of approximately 5-50%; and stage III - disease where the advent of 5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin, as adjuvant treatment has also resulted in a significant prolongation in survival. Progression-free survival is now an established surrogate for overall survival, and has resulted in more timely reporting of adjuvant studies and therefore faster integration of promising agents into the clinic. Targeted agents, which have shown promise in the metastatic setting, are currently being examined in the adjuvant setting, although results so far are disappointing. Patients with high-risk stage II cancer remain a challenging group. They have a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA disease, and national and international guidance recommend offering chemotherapy after careful discussion of the pros and cons. Despite the fact that we have identified many of the biological features that make stage II disease higher risk, we still struggle to achieve the same improvement in survival for this subgroup compared with others. It may be that these patients required treatment with alternative regimens and predictive biomarkers would be particularly helpful. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

Graham K.,Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Center | Burton K.,Royal Infirmary
Current Oncology Reports | Year: 2013

Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva is an uncommon gynaecological malignancy, but the incidence is increasing. A significant proportion of patients present with locally advanced disease, and management can prove challenging because of the size and/or location of the tumour. Surgery forms the mainstay of treatment, but the role of neoadjuvant therapy in minimizing morbidity is under investigation. Although chemotherapy alone has been largely neglected in favour of chemoradiotherapy, concerns about the toxicity of trimodality therapy and suboptimal results, particularly in node-positive patients, have led to renewed interest in neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). A review of the available literature illustrates that NACT can produce dramatic responses, but operability rates and overall survival differ widely. The effect is dependent on as yet unidentified factors, although we speculate that age and tumour biology are important. Further work is required to delineate the optimal NACT regimen and the patient population(s) most likely to benefit from this practice. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Mcmillan A.,University of Nottingham | Ardeshna K.M.,University College London | Cwynarski K.,Royal Free Hospital | Lyttelton M.,Kettering General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

Summary: The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Dearnaley D.P.,Institute of Cancer Research | Jovic G.,University College London | Syndikus I.,Clatterbridge Center for Oncology | Khoo V.,Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: The aim of this trial was to compare dose-escalated conformal radiotherapy with control-dose conformal radiotherapy in patients with localised prostate cancer. Preliminary findings reported after 5 years of follow-up showed that escalated-dose conformal radiotherapy improved biochemical progression-free survival. Based on the sample size calculation, we planned to analyse overall survival when 190 deaths occurred; this target has now been reached, after a median 10 years of follow-up. Methods: RT01 was a phase 3, open-label, international, randomised controlled trial enrolling men with histologically confirmed T1b-T3a, N0, M0 prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen of less than 50 ng/mL. Patients were randomly assigned centrally in a 1:1 ratio, using a computer-based minimisation algorithm stratifying by risk of seminal vesicle invasion and centre to either the control group (64 Gy in 32 fractions, the standard dose at the time the trial was designed) or the escalated-dose group (74 Gy in 37 fractions). Neither patients nor investigators were masked to assignment. All patients received neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy for 3-6 months before the start of conformal radiotherapy, which continued until the end of conformal radiotherapy. The coprimary outcome measures were biochemical progression-free survival and overall survival. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Treatment-related side-effects have been reported previously. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN47772397. Findings: Between Jan 7, 1998, and Dec 20, 2001, 862 men were registered and 843 subsequently randomly assigned: 422 to the escalated-dose group and 421 to the control group. As of Aug 2, 2011, 236 deaths had occurred: 118 in each group. Median follow-up was 10·0 years (IQR 9·1-10·8). Overall survival at 10 years was 71% (95% CI 66-75) in each group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·99, 95% CI 0·77-1·28; p=0·96). Biochemical progression or progressive disease occurred in 391 patients (221 [57%] in the control group and 170 [43%] in the escalated-dose group). At 10 years, biochemical progression-free survival was 43% (95% CI 38-48) in the control group and 55% (50-61) in the escalated-dose group (HR 0·69, 95% CI 0·56-0·84; p=0·0003). Interpretation: At a median follow-up of 10 years, escalated-dose conformal radiotherapy with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy showed an advantage in biochemical progression-free survival, but this advantage did not translate into an improvement in overall survival. These efficacy data for escalated-dose treatment must be weighed against the increase in acute and late toxicities associated with the escalated dose and emphasise the importance of use of appropriate modern radiotherapy methods to reduce side-effects. Funding: UK Medical Research Council. © 2014 Dearnaley et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Source

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