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Zachariah A.,Beagle | Abraham R.K.,Parolikal | Das S.,Santhi Nivas | Jayan K.C.,Souparnika | Altig R.,Mississippi State University
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Novel and significant data on the breeding biology and tadpole morphology of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis expands our understanding of this unusual frog and clarifies some data in other reports. Nonpigmented eggs are laid in arrays or clumps in small shaded rocky pools in the bedrock of torrential streams, as they are charged by early monsoon rains. The suctorial tadpole adapted to rheophilic habitats, has a strongly depressed body, dorsal eyes, complete marginal papillae, a labial tooth row formula of 2/3 or 2/3(1), and a medial vent with unusual flaps subtending the vent and limb buds. Tadpoles metamorphose in about 100 days. Additional site records and issues relating to the conservation of this frog and its habitat in the southern Western Ghats of India are discussed. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press. Source


Biju S.D.,University of Delhi | Bocxlaer I.V.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Mahony S.,University of Delhi | Dinesh K.P.,Western Ghats Regional Center | And 4 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

A taxonomic revision of the genus Nyctibatrachus is presented. As a result,we recognize 27 species, 12 of which are new to science and described herein. Three 'lost' species-Nyctibatrachus sanctipalustris, Nyctibatrachus sylvaticus and Nannobatrachus kempholeyensis are rediscovered after their original descriptions and the latter two species are neotypified. Four species are lectotypified (Nannobatrachus beddomii, Nyctibatrachus deccanensis, Nyctibatrachus major and Nyctibatrachus sanctipalustris). The taxonomic revision and description of new species is based on new morphological, behavioural, ecological and molecular data from available type specimens and/or recent collections from throughout the distribution range of Nyctibatrachus. Specimens from the type localities of all previously described species were collected and discussed along with the type specimens. Nyctibatrachus sholai is considered a junior subjective synonym of N. deccanensis. Nyctibatrachus sanctipalustris modestus is resurrected from synonymy, but allocated to the genus Fejervarya. A new gland, the subocular gland is introduced to anuran morphological terminology. Both the courtship behaviour and ovipositional sites of four species are described for the first time. The process of fertilisation was carried out in the absence of physical contact between males and females in all four species. Furthermore, previously unreported parental care behaviour is documented for the genus, including biparental egg attendance (probably clutch hydration) and egg guarding (active predator defense). A brief outline of tadpole development from egg to metamorph is provided for Nyctibatrachus aliciae, with figures of the major developmental stages. © 2011 Magnolia Press. Source


Abraham R.K.,University of Kansas | Abraham R.K.,Center for Herpetology | Zachariah A.,Beagle | Cyriac V.P.,Indian Institute of Science
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Raorchestes flaviventris, a species of rhacophorid bush frog described from the Western Ghats by George Albert Boulenger in 1882, has never been reported from the region since its description. However, we herewith report a record of the species after almost 132 years and redescribe the species and also clarify confusions that prevailed over the taxonomic status of the species and its closely-related congeners, along with shedding light on literature regarding its distribution. Also, the recently described R. emeraldi Vijayakumar et al., 2014, which we suggest to be the same species, becomes a junior subjective synonym of R. flaviventris. © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source


Abraham R.K.,University of Kansas | Abraham R.K.,Center for Herpetology | Mathew J.K.,Karakkattupeedicayil | Cyriac V.P.,Indian Institute of Science | And 3 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot is a recognized center of rhacophorid diversity as demonstrated by several recent studies. The endemic genus Ghatixalus is represented by two species from two separate high-elevation regions within the Ghats. Here, we describe a third species that can be distinguished by morphological and larval characters, as well as by its phylogenetic placement. © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source


Zachariah A.,Beagle | Cyriac V.P.,Indian Institute of Science | Chandramohan B.,SciGenom Research Foundation | Ansil B.R.,Vilayilveedu | And 4 more authors.
Salamandra | Year: 2016

Two new species of rhacophorid bush frogs of the genus Raorchestes are described from the tropical montane wet forests in the Silent Valley National Park in the Nilgiri Hills, a high horst in the Western Ghats, India. Both species can be differentiated from their congeners by morphological and bioacoustic characters as well as differences in the mitochondrial 16S gene. Advertisement calls of the two new species are provided and tentative insights into the phylogenetic position discussed. Despite recent revisions of this genus from the Western Ghats, and the fact that the Silent Valley National Park is one of the most important and well-surveyed protected areas, the results of this study highlight the overlooked diversity in this area. © 2016 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde e.V. (DGHT), Mannheim, Germany. Source

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