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Sussman D.,The New School | Patel V.,Allergan, Inc. | Del Popolo G.,University of Florence | Lam W.,Allergan, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Neurourology and Urodynamics | Year: 2013

Aims: OnabotulinumtoxinA significantly reduces urinary incontinence (UI) and improves bladder management in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). We evaluated the impact of onabotulinumtoxinA on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with UI due to NDO in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods Patients with UI due to NDO (from multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury) were randomized to intradetrusor placebo (n = 92) or onabotulinumtoxinA 200 U (n = 92) or 300 U (n = 91). PROs included Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QOL) Questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the 16-item modified Overactive Bladder-Patient Satisfaction with Treatment Questionnaire (OAB-PSTQ) to assess treatment satisfaction, and Patient Global Assessment to assess treatment goal achievement. Results: Mean improvement in I-QOL total score at weeks 6 and 12 was significantly greater with both onabotulinumtoxinA 200 U and 300 U versus placebo (Δ12.3 for 200 U and Δ14.9 for 300 U vs. placebo; P < 0.001), and was clinically meaningful. For those patients who completed the OAB-PSTQ, improvement in satisfaction at weeks 6 and 12 was significantly greater for onabotulinumtoxinA versus placebo (P < 0.001, all comparisons). At 6 weeks, greater proportions of onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients than placebo reported being somewhat or very satisfied (200 U, 77.5% and 300 U, 67.8% vs. placebo, 39.5%), and significant progress toward or complete achievement of primary treatment goal (200 U, 62.9% and 300 U, 61.6% vs. placebo, 16.5%). Conclusions: NDO patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA 200 or 300 U had significantly greater improvement in HRQoL and greater treatment satisfaction compared with placebo-treated patients, with no clinically relevant differences between onabotulinumtoxinA doses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Bird S.,BC Research Inc. | Hogan D.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Schwab J.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2010

The recent advent of digital photogrammetry has enabled the modeling and monitoring of river beds at relatively high spatial resolution (0·01 to 1 m) through the extraction of digital elevation models (DEMs). The traditional approach to image capture has been to mount a metric camera to an aircraft, although non-metric cameras have been mounted to a variety of novel aerial platforms to acquire river-based imagery (e.g. helicopters, radio-controlled motorized vehicles, tethered blimps and bal- loons). However, most of these techniques are designed to acquire imagery at flying heights above the riparian tree canopy. In relatively narrow channels (e.g. <20 m bankfull width), streamside trees can obscure the channel and limit continuous photogram- metric data acquisition of both the channel bed and banks, while still providing useful information regarding the riparian canopy and even spot elevations of the channel. This paper presents a technique for the capture and analysis of close-range photogram- metric data acquired from a vertically mounted non-metric camera suspended 10 m above the channel bed by a unipod. The camera is positioned under the riparian forest canopy so that the channel bed can be imaged without obstruction. The system is portable and permits relatively rapid image acquisition over rough terrain and in dense forest. The platform was used to generate DEMs with a nominal ground resolution of 0·03 m. DEMs generated from this platform required post-possessing to either adjust or eliminate erroneous cells introduced by the extraction process, overhanging branches, and by the effects of refraction at the air-water interface for submerged portions of the channel bed. The vertical precision in the post-processed surface generally ranged from ± 0·01 to 0·1 m depending on the quality of triangulation and the characteristics of the surface being imaged. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Pommerville P.J.,BC Research Inc. | De Boer J.G.,De Boer Consulting
Canadian Journal of Urology | Year: 2010

Analogues of the gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH) inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This has provided treatment modalities for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. The latest group of analogues, the GnRH antagonists, make promising treatments available that avoid the transient surge in testosterone that occurs with the use of GnRH agonists. Such surges may stimulate tumor growth, causing patients to experience new or worsening cancer symptoms and potential serious adverse effects, including increased bone pain, urinary retention, and spinal cord compression and consequently delay the therapeutic benefits of agonist therapy. Degarelix, an antagonist, recently approved in the United States and Europe, achieves faster, more profound and sustained testosterone suppression and with fewer adverse effects when compared with agonists and other antagonists. This review discusses and compares the compounds degarelix, abarelix, and cetrorelix. © The Canadian Journal of Urology™.


Jakob F.,California State University, Sacramento | Dukarm J.J.,BC Research Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2015

Conventional practice for transformer dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is to use concentrations of several fault gases, with or without total dissolved combustible gas, for evaluating apparent fault severity. We suggest a simpler approach based on the normalized energy intensity (NEI), a quantity related directly to fault energy dissipated within the transformer. DGA fault severity scoring based on NEI is shown to be sensitive to all IEC fault types and to be more responsive to shifts in the relative concentrations of the fault gases than scoring based on fault gas concentrations. Instead of eight or more gas concentration limits, NEI scoring requires only two or three limits that can be empirically derived to suit local requirements for any population of mineral-oil-filled power transformers. © 2015 IEEE.


Taylor K.,BC Research Inc.
Tappi Journal | Year: 2013

At a northern bleached softwood kraft (NBSK) mill in western Canada, poor settling green liquor dregs caused high non-process element levels in lime mud and white liquor pressure filter plugging. Dregs samples were collected during poor settling and normal settling conditions. Samples were examined by qualitative analysis, elemental analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersion X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy. Poor settling dregs were caused by an inorganic gelatinous material. The inorganic gel was determined to be an amorphous magnesium silicate compound of approximate composition Mg2(Si1-xAlx)O4, with a molar ratio of silicon to aluminum of approximately 5:1. The density of the inorganic gel was only slightly higher than the green liquor, causing it to settle very slowly. When calcite particles were trapped by the gel, the average density increased, which increased the settling rate. The inorganic gel was present during normal settling, but contained more aluminum (silicon to aluminum ratio of approximately 2:1). During normal settling, the gel was more dense and contained more trapped particles of calcite.

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