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Sarcevic H.,University of Zagreb | Jukic K.,Bc Institute for Production and Breeding of Field Crops Zagreb | Ikic I.,Bc Institute for Production and Breeding of Field Crops Zagreb | Lovric A.,University of Zagreb
Euphytica | Year: 2014

The main question connected with developing wheat cultivars adapted to low nitrogen (N) is whether separate breeding programs for low and high input conditions are necessary. Nineteen wheat cultivars were grown over three years in Croatia in a total of eight environments at high N and low N in order to determine the effect of two N levels on means, variances and heritability of grain yield and bread-making quality and to assess the relative efficiency of indirect selection under high N in improving trait means under low N. Means of grain yield and grain protein content decreased under low N 10 and 13 %, respectively compared to the high N, whereas higher reductions of means due to lower fertilization were observed for grain N yield (21 %), wet gluten content (20 %), Zeleny sedimentation value (27 %) and for most rheological parameters, whose mean values were reduced from 20 % to as much as 57 %. Heritabilities for grain yield and grain N yield at high N were 0.82 and 0.76, respectively, and 0.77 and 0.43 at low N. Heritability for dough development time, stability and resistance also tended to be higher at high N than at low N due to a decrease in genetic variance and an increase in error variance at low N. The genetic correlation coefficients between high and low N were higher than 0.90 and the efficiency of indirect selection under high N for performance under low N was near 1.0 for grain yield and for most bread-making quality traits. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ikic I.,Bc Institute for Production and Breeding of Field Crops Zagreb | Maricevic M.,Bc Institute for Production and Breeding of Field Crops Zagreb | Tomasovic S.,Bc Institute for Production and Breeding of Field Crops Zagreb | Gunjaca J.,University of Zagreb | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2012

The expression of seed dormancy related to germination temperature was studied in 25 wheat genotypes grown in the field at two locations near Zagreb and Županja in Croatia during 2008/2009 growing season. Germination tests were conducted at 15, 20 and 25 °C at harvest maturity (Time 1) as well as after 10 days (Time 2) and 15 months (Time 3) of seed after-ripening at room temperature, respectively. Significant (P < 0. 05) differences among locations (L), temperatures (T) and genotypes (G) as well as significant L × T, G × L, G × T and G × L × T interactions were observed for weighted germination index (WGI) at both Time 1 and Time 2. At Time 3 significant differences among genotypes for germination percentage were found only at the early stages of germination. The 25 wheat genotypes responded with decreasing WGI mean values (increasing dormancy) as temperature changed from 15 to 25 °C. The rate of dormancy increase with higher germination temperature varied among genotypes. Some genotypes, having similar values of WGI at 15 °C, significantly differed from each other at 25 °C and vice versa. This indicates that the range of germination temperatures included in the present study is useful when testing genotypes for their temperature-dependent dormancy potential. The number of genotypes with WGI values significantly different from the mean, as a measure of the power of germination test to detect differences in dormancy level among genotypes, as well as heritability estimates for WGIs were the highest at Time 1 for 15 °C and at Time 2 for 20 °C. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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