BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit

Vancouver, Canada

BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit

Vancouver, Canada

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Jin A.,Epidemiology Consultant | George M.A.,University of British Columbia | George M.A.,Child and Family Research Institute | Brussoni M.,University of British Columbia | And 4 more authors.
International Journal for Equity in Health | Year: 2015

Background: Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. This report describes variability in visits to primary care due to injury, among injury categories, time periods, geographies, and demographic groups. Methods: We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to practitioner payment and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. Within that population we identified those residing off-reserve according to postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of primary care visit due to injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. Results: During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of primary care visit due to injury in BC was 3172 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal off-reserve rate was 4291 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.41 (95 % confidence interval: 1.41 to 1.42). Northern and non-metropolitan HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total BC and Aboriginal off-reserve populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal off-reserve than among the total population. For all injuries combined, and for the categories of trauma, poisoning, and burn, between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more rapidly among the Aboriginal off-reserve population, so the gap between the Aboriginal off-reserve and total populations is narrowing, particularly among metropolitan residents. Conclusions: These findings corroborate our previous reports regarding hospitalizations due to injury, suggesting that our observations reflect real disparities and changes in the underlying incidence of injury, and are not merely artefacts related to health care utilization. © 2015 Jin et al.


Lalonde C.E.,University of Victoria | Brussoni M.,University of British Columbia | Brussoni M.,Child and Family Research Institute | Brussoni M.,BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods: We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results: During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions: Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has declined among the Aboriginal population. Women and older adults have benefited more. © 2015 Jin et al.


Scott V.,BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit | Scott V.,BC Ministry of Health | Scott V.,University of British Columbia | Gallagher E.,University of Victoria | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: A staged, mixed methods approach was applied to the development and evaluation of an evidence-based education program for health care professionals and community leaders on how to design, implement and evaluate a fall prevention program. Stages included pre-development, development, pilot testing and impact on practice. The goal of the evaluation was to determine if the Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum met the needs of the target audience and had an impact on learning and practice. Methods: Methods included a needs assessment, systematic reviews, pre-post tests of learning, follow-up surveys and interviews, and descriptive reports of stakeholder involvement. The needs assessment and systematic review of existing programs indicated that there was a demand for a comprehensive, evidence-based curriculum on fall prevention and that no similar curricula existed. Pre-post test findings showed significant increases in learning and follow-up surveys showed a positive impact on practice. Impact on industry: Evidence shows that the most effective fall prevention efforts are those that address the multifactorial nature of fall risk, with proven interventions provided by trained clinicians. The Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum provides evidence-based training for clinicians and community leaders using a public health approach to fall prevention that includes instruction on how to define the problem, assess the risk, examine best practices, implement the program, and conduct evaluation of the program's effectiveness. © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kalula S.Z.,University of Cape Town | Scott V.,British Columbia Injury Research and Prevention Unit | Scott V.,University of British Columbia | Scott V.,Bc Injury Research And Prevention Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2011

Problem: Falls in older persons in developing countries are poorly understood, and falls prevention and health promotion programmes for this population are largely lacking. Methods: A systematic review was carried out of relevant literature on falls and prevention programmes, and falls prevention education, and a scan undertaken of health promotion programmes for older persons in a representative country - South Africa. Results: Studies on the risk and prevalence of falls are largely retrospective and hospital-based, with varied methodology, including study period, sampling method and sample size. Falls prevalence is based largely on self-reports in studies on general trauma in all age groups. Falls incidence varies from 10.1% to 54%. No reports could be traced on sustained falls prevention or health promotion programmes. Conclusion: Scant research has been conducted and little preventive education offered on falls in older persons. Adaptation of the Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum for developing countries will help to fill gaps in knowledge and practice. Impact on industry: With rapid increase in the populations of older persons in developing countries, research on age related disorders such as falls is required to guide policy and management of falls. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved.


Teschke K.,University of British Columbia | Harris M.A.,Occupational Cancer Research Center | Reynolds C.C.O.,University of British Columbia | Winters M.,Simon Fraser University | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: We compared cycling injury risks of 14 route types and other route infrastructure features. Methods: We recruited 690 city residents injured while cycling in Toronto or Vancouver, Canada. A case-crossover design compared route infrastructure at each injury site to that of a randomly selected control site from the same trip. Results: Of 14 route types, cycle tracks had the lowest risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.11;95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.54), about one ninth the risk of the reference: major streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure. Risks on major streets were lower without parked cars (adjusted OR = 0.63;95% CI = 0.41, 0.96) and with bike lanes (adjusted OR = 0.54;95% CI = 0.29, 1.01). Local streets also had lower risks (adjusted OR = 0.51;95% CI = 0.31, 0.84). Other infrastructure characteristics were associated with increased risks: streetcar or train tracks (adjusted OR = 3.0;95% CI = 1.8, 5.1), downhill grades (adjusted OR = 2.3;95% CI = 1.7, 3.1), and construction (adjusted OR = 1.9;95% CI = 1.3, 2.9). Conclusions: The lower risks on quiet streets and with bike-specific infrastructure along busy streets support the route-design approach used in many northern European countries. Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling.


Pan S.W.,University of British Columbia | Pan S.W.,Liu Institute for Global Issues | Hsu C.-T.,National Dong Hwa University | Brussoni M.,University of British Columbia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Transport and Health | Year: 2015

In Taiwan, indigenous persons are three times as likely to die of transport-attributed causes as non-indigenous Taiwanese. One contributing factor may be exposure to powered-two wheelers (PTW). Despite its high fatality rate relative to cars, PTW remain an economical and popular mode of transport used disproportionately by people of lower education and income throughout Asia. This study tests (1) indigenous ethnicity as a predictor of PTW usage, and (2) educational attainment and personal income as mediators between indigenous ethnicity and PTW usage. Based on data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (n=2209), results indicated that most indigenous respondents reported PTW as their primary mode of transport (73%), and that odds of PTW usage among indigenous persons were 2.80 times higher than non-indigenous Taiwanese. The association between indigenous ethnicity and PTW usage was significantly mediated by educational attainment. Lower educational attainment and personal income were correlated with PTW usage. Indigenous Taiwanese appear to have greater exposure to PTW, and by extension, greater risk for transport-attributed injury or death. Ethnic differences in decisions pertaining to mode of transport are complex and unlikely the simple function of education or personal income. Community-led initiatives are needed to understand and address transport-attributed mortality among indigenous populations dependent on PTW. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Tetroe J.M.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | Graham I.D.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | Scott V.,BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: The concept of knowledge translation as defined by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the Knowledge to Action Cycle, described by Graham et al (Graham et al., 2006), are used to make a case for the importance of using a conceptual model to describe moving knowledge into action in the area of falls prevention. Method: There is a large body of research in the area of falls prevention. It would seem that in many areas it is clear what is needed to prevent falls and further syntheses can determine where the evidence is sufficiently robust to warrant its implementation as well as where the gaps are that require further basic research. Conclusion: The phases of the action cycle highlight seven areas that should be paid attention to in order to maximize chances of successful implementation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Desapriya E.,University of British Columbia | Desapriya E.,Bc Injury Research And Prevention Unit | Hewapathirane D.S.,University of British Columbia | Romilly D.P.,University of British Columbia | And 2 more authors.
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2012

Objective: Previous research indicates that most vehicle occupants are unaware that a correctly adjusted, well-designed vehicular head restraint provides substantial protection against whiplash injuries. This study examined whether a brief educational intervention could improve awareness regarding whiplash injuries and prevention strategies among a cohort of vehicle fleet managers.Methods: A brief written survey was administered prior to, and approximately 1 h after a 30-min presentation on whiplash injury and prevention measures, which was delivered at a regional fleet manager meeting held in British Columbia, Canada (n = 27 respondents).Results: Respondents had low baseline knowledge levels regarding the causes, consequences, and prevention of whiplash. Following the presentation, however, respondents improved awareness in all of these domains and, most important, reported an increased motivation to implement changes based on this newly acquired knowledge.Conclusions: These results indicate that improved education practices and social marketing tools are potentially valuable to increase awareness among relevant stakeholders. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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