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Jin A.,Epidemiology Consultant | George M.A.,University of British Columbia | George M.A.,Child and Family Research Institute | Brussoni M.,University of British Columbia | And 4 more authors.
International Journal for Equity in Health | Year: 2015

Background: Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. This report describes variability in visits to primary care due to injury, among injury categories, time periods, geographies, and demographic groups. Methods: We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to practitioner payment and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. Within that population we identified those residing off-reserve according to postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of primary care visit due to injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. Results: During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of primary care visit due to injury in BC was 3172 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal off-reserve rate was 4291 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.41 (95 % confidence interval: 1.41 to 1.42). Northern and non-metropolitan HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total BC and Aboriginal off-reserve populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal off-reserve than among the total population. For all injuries combined, and for the categories of trauma, poisoning, and burn, between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more rapidly among the Aboriginal off-reserve population, so the gap between the Aboriginal off-reserve and total populations is narrowing, particularly among metropolitan residents. Conclusions: These findings corroborate our previous reports regarding hospitalizations due to injury, suggesting that our observations reflect real disparities and changes in the underlying incidence of injury, and are not merely artefacts related to health care utilization. © 2015 Jin et al.


Lalonde C.E.,University of Victoria | Brussoni M.,University of British Columbia | Brussoni M.,Child and Family Research Institute | Brussoni M.,BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. Methods: We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. Results: During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Conclusions: Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has declined among the Aboriginal population. Women and older adults have benefited more. © 2015 Jin et al.


Desapriya E.,University of British Columbia | Desapriya E.,BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit | Hewapathirane D.S.,University of British Columbia | Romilly D.P.,University of British Columbia | And 2 more authors.
Traffic Injury Prevention | Year: 2012

Objective: Previous research indicates that most vehicle occupants are unaware that a correctly adjusted, well-designed vehicular head restraint provides substantial protection against whiplash injuries. This study examined whether a brief educational intervention could improve awareness regarding whiplash injuries and prevention strategies among a cohort of vehicle fleet managers.Methods: A brief written survey was administered prior to, and approximately 1 h after a 30-min presentation on whiplash injury and prevention measures, which was delivered at a regional fleet manager meeting held in British Columbia, Canada (n = 27 respondents).Results: Respondents had low baseline knowledge levels regarding the causes, consequences, and prevention of whiplash. Following the presentation, however, respondents improved awareness in all of these domains and, most important, reported an increased motivation to implement changes based on this newly acquired knowledge.Conclusions: These results indicate that improved education practices and social marketing tools are potentially valuable to increase awareness among relevant stakeholders. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Teschke K.,University of British Columbia | Harris M.A.,Occupational Cancer Research Center | Reynolds C.C.O.,University of British Columbia | Winters M.,Simon Fraser University | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: We compared cycling injury risks of 14 route types and other route infrastructure features. Methods: We recruited 690 city residents injured while cycling in Toronto or Vancouver, Canada. A case-crossover design compared route infrastructure at each injury site to that of a randomly selected control site from the same trip. Results: Of 14 route types, cycle tracks had the lowest risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.11;95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.54), about one ninth the risk of the reference: major streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure. Risks on major streets were lower without parked cars (adjusted OR = 0.63;95% CI = 0.41, 0.96) and with bike lanes (adjusted OR = 0.54;95% CI = 0.29, 1.01). Local streets also had lower risks (adjusted OR = 0.51;95% CI = 0.31, 0.84). Other infrastructure characteristics were associated with increased risks: streetcar or train tracks (adjusted OR = 3.0;95% CI = 1.8, 5.1), downhill grades (adjusted OR = 2.3;95% CI = 1.7, 3.1), and construction (adjusted OR = 1.9;95% CI = 1.3, 2.9). Conclusions: The lower risks on quiet streets and with bike-specific infrastructure along busy streets support the route-design approach used in many northern European countries. Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling.


Tetroe J.M.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | Graham I.D.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | Scott V.,BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit
Journal of Safety Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: The concept of knowledge translation as defined by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the Knowledge to Action Cycle, described by Graham et al (Graham et al., 2006), are used to make a case for the importance of using a conceptual model to describe moving knowledge into action in the area of falls prevention. Method: There is a large body of research in the area of falls prevention. It would seem that in many areas it is clear what is needed to prevent falls and further syntheses can determine where the evidence is sufficiently robust to warrant its implementation as well as where the gaps are that require further basic research. Conclusion: The phases of the action cycle highlight seven areas that should be paid attention to in order to maximize chances of successful implementation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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