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Woodcock J.,University of Salford | Davies W.J.,University of Salford | Cox T.J.,University of Salford | Melchior F.,BBC RandD
AES: Journal of the Audio Engineering Society | Year: 2016

This paper presents a series of experiments to determine a categorization framework for broadcast audio objects. Object-based audio is becoming an evermore important paradigm for the representation of complex sound scenes. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding object level perception and cognitive processing of complex broadcast audio scenes. As categorization is a fundamental strategy in reducing cognitive load, knowledge of the categories utilized by listeners in the perception of complex scenes will be beneficial to the development of perceptually based representations and rendering strategies for object-based audio. In this study expert and non-expert listeners took part in a free card sorting task using audio objects from a variety of different types of program material. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering suggests that there are seven general categories, which relate to sounds indicating actions and movement, continuous and transient background sound, clear speech, non-diegetic music and effects, sounds indicating the presence of people, and prominent attention grabbing transient sounds. A three-dimensional perceptual space calculated via multidimensional scaling suggests that these categories vary along dimensions related to the semantic content of the objects, the temporal extent of the objects, and whether the object indicates the presence of people. © 2016 Journal of the Audio Engineering Society.

Zorrilla M.,Vicomtech IK | Martin A.,Vicomtech IK | Tamayo I.,Vicomtech IK | O'Halpin S.,BBC RandD | Hazael-Massieux D.,W3C ERCIM
IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting, BMSB | Year: 2014

HbbTV takes advantage of the opportunity to expand the broadcast experience exploiting the common media content. However, the time to reach the audience in a different way has come. Aware of the privileged position of the TV in the living room, manufacturers and marketplace app developers have fostered their own bunch of solutions to integrate the big TV display with the mobile ones, to consume broadband media but ignoring the broadcast traction potential. One major challenge of all these approaches is the resource discovery and association step, where different strategies have been employed. A TV content-centric approach opens new possibilities. First, the possibility to enhance the offer services scheduled on a time basis according to the broadcast signalling. Second, the awareness of a common media been played at the same temporal and spatial environment can support the discovery and association of surrounding handheld devices. This paper analyses the capacity of common visual and acoustic environmental patterns to build enhanced discovery and association protocols, concluding a multi-step combined solution as a suitable approach for broadcast-related second screen services. © 2014 IEEE.

Chambers C.J.,BBC RandD
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2016

Providing topical information and entertainment began with wall paintings, the spoken word and face-To-face performance, then the addition of the written and printed word along with illustrations and pictures, followed by audio recording. In the early 1920s, regular broadcast radio services began, followed by television in the late 1930s, and this has provided the basis of broadcast media we know today. These innovations frequently pushed boundaries and challenged the status quo, but not all of these challenges were technical by any means. However, it could be argued that the development of accessible technologies has been fundamental to the successful deployment of information and entertainment media in all their forms throughout history. Today, the merging of audio and video media with a whole range of digital services is becoming commonplace.With the ability of such services to develop new approaches in supporting people's everyday living experiences, this will take communication networks into a new era central to the way we live. This paper postulates that the historical trends with audio and video media developments from the early 1900s will continue to push future boundaries, and attempts to highlight the key demands and the developing trends from a communication network point of view. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Van Deventer M.O.,Applied Scientific Research | Stokking H.,Applied Scientific Research | Hammond M.,BBC RandD | Le Feuvre J.,Telecom ParisTech | Cesar P.,National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science CWI
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2016

Media synchronization is getting renewed attention with ecosystems of connected devices enabling novel media consumption paradigms. Social TV, hybrid TV, and companion screens are examples that are enabling people to consume multiple media streams at multiple devices together. These novel use cases require media synchronization, as unfortunately there are substantial delay differences between the various delivery routes for television and streaming media. Broadcasters have started using proprietary solutions for over-the-top media synchronization, such as media fingerprinting or media watermarking technologies. Given the commercial interest in media synchronization and the disadvantages of proprietary technologies, consumer-equipment manufacturers, broadcasters, and telecom and cable operators have started developing a new wave of international standards for media synchronization. This article provides an overview of recently published standards from the most relevant bodies: IETF, ETSI, MPEG, DVB, HbbTV, and W3C. © 2016 IEEE.

Mu M.,Lancaster University | Ishmael J.,Lancaster University | Knowles W.,Lancaster University | Rouncefield M.,Lancaster University | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Multimedia | Year: 2012

This paper introduces the recent design and development of a converged IPTV service that has been deployed within a live test-bed (Living Lab) at Lancaster University for thousands of students. High quality audio-visual content is distributed over heterogeneous IP-based content networks, on both set-top box and web-based platforms. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies are exploited to provide energy efficient and low-cost delivery for commercial and user-generated content. The infrastructure and functional components are first presented exploring a number of key designs that facilitate the entire eco-system of content ingest, transcoding, P2P tracking, distribution, statistics, end systems, as well as integration of social networking. Due to the dynamic nature of P2P distribution, a quality measurement service with respect to user experience is also essential for the service evaluation and diagnosis. A multimodal QoE measurement framework which evaluates the IPTV services by collaborating measurements with a variety of different aspects is presented. Results of a use case are also described to verify the effectiveness of the measurement framework in exploiting relevant metrics from service components. © 1999-2012 IEEE.

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