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Waco, TX, United States

Baylor University is a private Baptist university in Waco, Texas. Chartered in 1845 by the Republic of Texas, Baylor is the oldest continuously operating university in Texas and was one of the first educational institutions west of the Mississippi River in the United States. The university's 1,000-acre campus is located on the banks of the Brazos River next to freeway I-35, between the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and Austin. Baylor University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Baylor is notable for its law, medicine, business, science, music and English programs.Baylor University athletic teams, known as the Bears, participate in 19 intercollegiate sports. The university is a member of the Big 12 Conference for all NCAA Division I athletics. Wikipedia.

Brooks B.W.,Baylor University
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

A decade has now passed since our research group initially reported several adverse effects of fluoxetine to aquatic organisms commonly employed for developing environmental quality criteria, evaluating whole effluent toxicity, and monitoring ambient toxicity of surface waters and sediments. Our subsequent observation of fluoxetine, sertraline and their active metabolites (norfluoxetine and desmethylsertraline, respectively) accumulating in muscle, liver and brain tissues of three different fish species from an effluent-dominated stream was termed "Fish on Prozac." Here I briefly review some scientific lessons learned from our study of antidepressants and the environment, including opportunities for research, management, environmental education and public outreach. Intrinsic chemical properties of antidepressants and other pharmaceuticals have afforded research in areas ranging from analytical chemistry and comparative pharmacology, to influences of ionization, chirality and adverse outcome pathways on hazard and risk assessment, and further promises to support sustainable molecular design of less hazardous chemicals. Using probabilistic hazard assessment and fish plasma modeling approaches, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants are predicted to result in therapeutic hazard to fish (internal fish plasma level equaling mammalian therapeutic dose) when exposed to water (inhalational) at or below 1. μg/L, a common trigger value for environmental assessments. Though many questions remain unanswered, studies of antidepressants in urbanizing aquatic systems have provided, and will continue to develop, an advanced understanding of environmental hazards and risks from pharmaceuticals and other contaminants. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zechmann B.,Baylor University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2014

The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression, and the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment-specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment-specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, tobacco mosaic virus). The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol). Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. © 2014 Zechmann. Source

Atesok K.,Baylor University
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons | Year: 2012

Mastering rapidly evolving orthopaedic surgical techniques requires a lengthy period of training. Current work-hour restrictions and cost pressures force trainees to face the challenge of acquiring more complex surgical skills in a shorter amount of time. As a result, alternative methods to improve the surgical skills of orthopaedic trainees outside the operating room have been developed. These methods include hands-on training in a laboratory setting using synthetic bones or cadaver models as well as software tools and computerized simulators that enable trainees to plan and simulate orthopaedic operations in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Laboratory-based training offers potential benefits in the development of basic surgical skills, such as using surgical tools and implants appropriately, achieving competency in procedures that have a steep learning curve, and assessing already acquired skills while minimizing concerns for patient safety, operating room time, and financial constraints. Current evidence supporting the educational advantages of surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training is limited. Despite this, positive effects on the overall education of orthopaedic residents, and on maintaining the proficiency of practicing orthopaedic surgeons, are anticipated. Source

Nanoparticles (NPs) in the biological environment are exposed to a large variety and concentration of proteins. Proteins are known to adsorb in a 'corona' like structure on the surface of NPs. In this study, we focus on the effects of surface compositional and structural heterogeneity on protein adsorption by examining the interaction of self-assembled monolayer coated gold NPs (AuNPs) with two types of proteins: ubiquitin and fibrinogen. This work was designed to systematically investigate the role of surface heterogeneity in nanoparticle-protein interaction. We have chosen the particles as well as the proteins to provide different types (in distribution and length-scale) of heterogeneity. The goal was to unveil the role of heterogeneity and of its length-scale in the particle-protein interaction. Dynamic light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to reveal different interactions at pH above and below the isoelectric points of the proteins, which is related to the charge heterogeneity on the protein surface. At pH 7.4, there was only a monolayer of proteins adsorbed onto the NPs and the secondary structure of proteins remained intact. At pH 4.0, large aggregates of nanoparticle-protein complexes were formed and the secondary structures of the proteins were significantly disrupted. In terms of interaction thermodynamics, results from isothermal titration calorimetry showed that ubiquitin adsorbed differently onto (1) AuNPs with charged and nonpolar terminals organized into nano-scale structure (66-34 OT), (2) AuNPs with randomly distributed terminals (66-34 brOT), and (3) AuNPs with homogeneously charged terminals (MUS). This difference in adsorption behavior was not observed when AuNPs interacted with fibrinogen. The results suggested that the interaction between the proteins and AuNPs was influenced by the surface heterogeneity on the AuNPs, and this influence depends on the scale of surface heterogeneity and the size of the proteins. Source

Wakefield R.,Baylor University
Journal of Strategic Information Systems | Year: 2013

Personal consumer data is the fuel for information driven programs that may differentiate a firm from its competitors and create strategic advantages. However, a tension exists between the user's desire to protect personal information and the needs of online businesses for consumer data that drive customer relationship and business intelligence applications. This study explores the roles of positive and negative affect on users' trust and privacy beliefs that relate to the online disclosure of personal information. A model is tested using the responses of 301 Internet users who visited one of two commercial websites. The results indicate that positive affect has a significant effect on users' website trust and privacy beliefs that motivate online information disclosure and this effect is more pronounced for users with high Internet security concerns. The idea that positive mood-inducing website features can motivate user behavior has the potential to guide the development of websites for effective information disclosure and data collection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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