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Bellin M.D.,University of Minnesota | Gelrud A.,Center for Endoscopic Research and Therapeutics | Arreaza-Rubin G.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Dunn T.B.,University of Minnesota | And 7 more authors.
Pancreas | Year: 2014

A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases focused on research gaps and opportunities in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for the management of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The session was held on July 23, 2014, and structured into 5 sessions: (1) patient selection, indications, and timing; (2) technical aspects of TPIAT; (3) improving success of islet autotransplantation; (4) improving outcomes after total pancreatectomy; and (5) registry considerations for TPIAT. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; knowledge gaps and research needs were specifically highlighted. Common themes included the need to identify which patients best benefit from and when to intervene with TPIAT, current limitations of the surgical procedure, diabetes remission and the potential for improvement, opportunities to better address pain remission, gastrointestinal complications in this population, and unique features of children with CP considered for TPIAT. The need for a multicenter patient registry that specifically addresses the complexities of CP and total pancreatectomy outcomes as well as postsurgical diabetes outcomes was repeatedly emphasized. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Bellin M.D.,University of Minnesota | Gelrud A.,Center for Endoscopic Research and Therapeutics | Arreaza-Rubin G.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Dunn T.B.,University of Minnesota | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases focused on research gaps and opportunities in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for the management of chronic pancreatitis. The session was held on July 23, 2014 and structured into 5 sessions: (1) patient selection, indications, and timing; (2) technical aspects of TPIAT; (3) improving success of islet autotransplantation; (4) improving outcomes after total pancreatectomy; and (5) registry considerations for TPIAT. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; knowledge gaps and research needs were specifically highlighted. Common themes included the need to identify which patients best benefit from and when to intervene with TPIAT, current limitations of the surgical procedure, diabetes remission and the potential for improvement, opportunities to better address pain remission, GI complications in this population, and unique features of children with chronic pancreatitis considered for TPIAT. The need for a multicenter patient registry that specifically addresses the complexities of chronic pancreatitis and total pancreatectomy outcomes and postsurgical diabetes outcomes was repeatedly emphasized. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Naziruddin B.,Baylor Simmons Transplant Institute | Wease S.,The EMMES Corporation | Stablein D.,The EMMES Corporation | Barton F.B.,The EMMES Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2012

Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment option for patients severely affected with type 1 diabetes. This report from CITR presents pre and posttransplant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I sensitization rates in islet-alone transplantation. Data came from 303 recipients transplanted with islet-alone between January 1999 and December 2008. HLA class I sensitization was determined by the presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) from prior to islet infusion and at 6 months, and yearly posttransplant was correlated to measures of islet graft failure. The cumulative number of mismatched HLA alleles increased with each additional islet infusion from a median of 3 for one infusion to 9 for three infusions. Pretransplant PRA was not predictive of islet graft failure. However, development of PRA >20% posttransplant was associated with 3.6-fold (p < 0.001) increased hazard ratio for graft failure. Patients with complete graft loss who had discontinued immunosuppression had significantly higher rate of PRA ≥ 20% compared to those with functioning grafts who remained on immunosuppression. Exposure to repeat HLA class I mismatch at second or third islet infusions resulted in less frequent development of de novo HLA class I antibodies when compared to increased class I mismatch. The development of HLA class I antibodies while on immunosuppression is associated with subsequent islet graft failure. The risk of sensitization may be reduced by minimizing the number of islet donors used per recipient, and in the absence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies, repeating HLA class I mismatches with subsequent islet infusions. © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.


Noguchi H.,Baylor University | Fujita Y.,Baylor Research Institute | Takita M.,Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. | Ikemoto T.,Baylor Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2012

Porcine islets are a promising resource for xenotransplantation. However, low efficacy of islet isolation because of their marked fragility remains a problem. Recently we found that the standard purification method using COBE 2991 cell processor (COBE) with Ficoll density gradient solution damaged islets mechanically by high shearing force. In this study, we evaluated our new purification method using large plastic bottles for the efficacy of islet purification. Ten porcine pancreata were used. The average warm ischemic time was over 40 min; therefore, these pancreata were considered to be in a marginal condition. After digestion, the digested tissue was divided into three groups. Each group was purified using either top loading method with bottle (top group) or bottom loading method with bottle (bottom group) or standard COBE method (COBE group). Islet yield per pancreas weight (IEQ/g) and the rate of postpurification recovery in the top group were significantly higher than the COBE group (top: 8060 ± 1652 IEQ/g, bottom: 4572 ± 614 IE/g, COBE: 3900 ± 734 IE/g. p < 0.02 in top vs. COBE; top percentage of recovery: 99.3 ± 12.3%, bottom: 62.6 ± 8.8%, COBE: 49.5 ± 6.7%, p < 0.02 in top vs. bottom and COBE). The average sizes of purified islets in the top and bottom groups were significantly larger than COBE group (Average diameter top: 156 ± 8 μm, bottom: 147 ± 6 μm, COBE: 119 ± 6 μm, p < 0.01 in top vs. COBE and in bottom vs. COBE), which indicated that bottle method can reduce shear force during purification. Our new purification using top loading bottle method enabled us to obtain a high yield of porcine islets from marginal pancreata. © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.


PubMed | St Josephs Hospital And Medical Center, Baylor Research Institute and Baylor Simmons Transplant Institute
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in immunology | Year: 2017

The field of organ transplantation has undoubtedly made great strides in recent years. Despite the advances in donor-recipient histocompatibility testing, improvement in transplantation procedures, and development of aggressive immunosuppressive regimens, graft-directed immune responses still pose a major problem to the long-term success of organ transplantation. Elicitation of immune responses detected as antibodies to mismatched donor antigens (alloantibodies) and tissue-restricted self-antigens (autoantibodies) are two major risk factors for the development of graft rejection that ultimately lead to graft failure. In this review, we describe current understanding on genesis and pathogenesis of antibodies in two important clinical scenarios: lung transplantation and transplantation of islet of Langerhans. It is evident that when compared to any other clinical solid organ or cellular transplant, lung and islet transplants are more susceptible to rejection by combination of allo- and autoimmune responses.


Chang C.A.,Baylor University | Haque W.Z.,Baylor Research Institute | Yoshimatsu G.,Baylor Research Institute | Balaji P.S.,Baylor Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Panminerva Medica | Year: 2016

Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement treatment for patients with "brittle" type 1 diabetes (T1d) or intractable chronic pancreatitis to restore or preserve pancreatic endocrine function. Early after transplant, a significant islet mass is lost due to an innate inflammatory response, and further loss of the islet graft occurs over time due to immune response, drug toxicity, or metabolic exhaustion. Thus, clinically feasible techniques are essential to monitor islet graft function and survival to maintain appropriate therapy. currently, islet graft function is monitored using blood glucose levels, insulin and C-peptide levels, and islet imaging. However, these tests are influenced by physiological changes, including beta cell stimulation. Biomarkers that are independent of metabolic stimuli would be more accurate and reliable in detecting islet damage. antibodies against islet autoantigens are useful but not reliable markers of islet injury due to their presence during the pretransplant period. Several islet-specific proteins such as Glutamate decarboxylase-65, doublecortin, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1a, ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-L1, and the high-mobility group box-1 protein have been proposed as candidates to monitor islet damage, but these biomarkers have short half-lives and unreliable detection. Unmethylated insulin dNa has been studied in T1d patients and has been documented as a highly correlative and selective biomarker for beta cell death. more recently, microrNas (mirNas) that are selectively expressed in islets have been shown to provide sensitive and accurate quantification of islet damage. Analysis of plasma samples from autologous and allogeneic islet transplant patients has demonstrated the value of miRNA-375 as a specific biomarker to accurately assess islet damage. Use of selective, sensitive, and measurably reproducible biomarkers of islets will lead to effective monitoring of beta cell replacement therapy and may also lead to development of preventative and interventional treatment strategies to improve outcomes. © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.


Matsumoto S.,The Saints | Takita M.,The Saints | Shimoda M.,Baylor University | Sugimoto K.,The Saints | And 8 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2012

Autologous islet transplantation after total pancreatectomy is an excellent treatment for painful chronic pancreatitis. Traditionally, islets have been isolated without purification; however, purification is applied when the tissue volume is large. Nevertheless, the impact of tissue volume and islet purification on clinical outcomes of autologous islet transplantation has not been well examined. We analyzed 27 cases of autologous islet transplantation performed from October 2006 to January 2011. After examining the relationship between tissue volume and portal pressure at various time points, we compared islet characteristics and clinical outcomes between cases with complications (complication group) and without (noncomplication group), as well as cases with purification (purification group) and without (nonpurification group). Tissue volume significantly correlated with maximum (R = 0.61), final (R = 0.53), and delta (i.e., difference between base and maximum; R = 0.71) portal pressure. The complication group had a significantly higher body mass index, tissue volume, islet yield, and portal pressure (maximum, final, delta), suggesting that complications were associated with high tissue volume and high portal pressure. Only one of four patients (25%) in the complication group became insulin free, whereas 11 of 23 patients (49%) in the noncomplication group became insulin free with smaller islet yields. The purification group had a higher islet yield and insulin independence rate but had similar final tissue volume, portal pressure, and complication rates compared with the nonpurification group. In conclusion, high tissue volume was associated with high portal pressure and complications in autologous islet transplantation. Islet purification effectively reduced tissue volume and had no negative impact on islet characteristics. Therefore, islet purification can reduce the risk of complications and may improve clinical outcome for autologous islet transplantation when tissue volume is large. © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.


Naziruddin B.,Baylor Simmons Transplant Institute | Matsumoto S.,Baylor Research Institute | Noguchi H.,Baylor Research Institute | Takita M.,Baylor Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2012

Total or partial pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet transplantation is a therapeutic option for the treatment of refractory chronic pancreatitis (CP). Maximization of islet yields from fibrotic and inflamed organs is crucial for prevention of posttransplant diabetes. We adapted technical advancements developed for islet allotransplantation toward islet autotransplantation. Eight patients (two men, six women; ages 24-58 years) underwent total (n = 7) or partial (n = 1) pancreatectomy for the treatment of CP refractory to maximal medical management. Pancreata were preserved in UW solution (UW group) in initial three cases and the last five pancreata were preserved with pancreatic ductal injection followed by ET-Kyoto/oxygenated PFC solutions (DI+TLM group). Islets were isolated by modified Ricordi method and were purified only in one case. All islet infusions were performed under general anesthesia via direct vein injection into the portal venous system with pressure monitoring. Total islet yields (129,314 ± 51,627 vs. 572,841 ± 116,934 IEQ, p < 0.04), islet yield/pancreas weight (1,233 ± 359 vs. 6,848 ± 847 IEQ/g, p < 0.003), and islet yield/patient body weight (1,951 ± 762 vs. 7,305 ± 1,531 IEQ/kg, p < 0.05) were significantly higher in the DI+TLM group when compared to the UW group. Pellet size was also higher (5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 13.5 ± 3.4 ml) in the DI+TLM group, suggesting that this method of preservation effectively protected pancreatic tissue against autolysis. First month posttransplant basal C-peptide and the secretory unit of islet transplant objects (SUITO) index were also higher in the DI+TLM group when compared to the UW group (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.4 ng/ml and 42.6 ± 12.7 vs. 14.6 ± 5.6, respectively). There were no technical complications related to the infusion. Our results suggest that higher islet yields can be achieved even from chronically inflamed and fibrotic organs using DI+TLM. The techniques applied for islet isolations from normal pancreata are showing promise for fibrotic pancreata from CP patients. © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.


Chinnakotla S.,Baylor University | Klintmalm G.B.,Baylor University | Kim P.,Baylor University | Tomiyama K.,Baylor University | And 8 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2011

Background: Because myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a frequent cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), treatment directed toward altering platelet production and function may be more rational and effective than anticoagulation after liver transplantation. Methods: We reviewed data on 25 patients who received liver transplantation for BCS at our institution from 1987 to 2007. Posttransplant antithrombotic treatment was based on the cause of BCS: 17 patients with MPDs received hydroxyurea/aspirin; 5 received warfarin; and 3 (2 whose hypercoagulable disorder was corrected and 1 with sarcoidosis) received no therapy. RESULTS.: Both graft survival (88% at 5 years) and patient survival (92% at 5 years) were superior in the BCS group compared with the 2609 patients who received liver transplants for other indications. Vascular complications included three instances of hepatic artery stenosis (NS compared with non-BCS liver recipients), one of portal vein thrombosis (nonsignificant [NS]), and one of portal vein stenosis (NS). All 25 patients underwent multiple liver biopsies with no bleeding complications. Conclusions: Using hydroxyurea and aspirin to treat patients with BCS caused by an MPD seems to be safe and effective and avoids the risks of anticoagulation with warfarin. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Baylor Simmons Transplant Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell transplantation | Year: 2012

Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment option for patients severely affected with type 1 diabetes. This report from CITR presents pre- and posttransplant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I sensitization rates in islet-alone transplantation. Data came from 303 recipients transplanted with islet-alone between January 1999 and December 2008. HLA class I sensitization was determined by the presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) from prior to islet infusion and at 6 months, and yearly posttransplant was correlated to measures of islet graft failure. The cumulative number of mismatched HLA alleles increased with each additional islet infusion from a median of 3 for one infusion to 9 for three infusions. Pretransplant PRA was not predictive of islet graft failure. However, development of PRA >20% posttransplant was associated with 3.6-fold (p < 0.001) increased hazard ratio for graft failure. Patients with complete graft loss who had discontinued immunosuppression had significantly higher rate of PRA 20% compared to those with functioning grafts who remained on immunosuppression. Exposure to repeat HLA class I mismatch at second or third islet infusions resulted in less frequent development of de novo HLA class I antibodies when compared to increased class I mismatch. The development of HLA class I antibodies while on immunosuppression is associated with subsequent islet graft failure. The risk of sensitization may be reduced by minimizing the number of islet donors used per recipient, and in the absence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies, repeating HLA class I mismatches with subsequent islet infusions.

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