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Baylor Research Institute | Date: 2015-02-18

Embodiments provide methods and compositions related to determining treatments for colorectal cancer patients by detection and analysis of the expression level of miRNA such as miR-320e in the patients. Embodiments provide predictive, prognostic and/or diagnostics methods by identifying miRNAs that are useful for clinical management of cancer patients, particularly colorectal cancer patients or patients at risk or determined to have colorectal cancer. Methods and compositions are based, in part, on the discovery that expression of certain miRNAs in cancer patients is associated with advancing cancer stages and/or can predict the responsiveness of cancer therapy, and can, therefore, provide basis for designing treatment strategies. In particular embodiments, the miRNA molecule is miR-320, particularly miR-320e.

Baylor Research Institute | Date: 2017-03-08

The present invention includes compositions and methods for the expression, secretion and use of novel compositions for use as, e.g., vaccines and antigen delivery vectors, to delivery antigens to antigen presenting cells. In one embodiment, the vector is an anti-CD40 antibody, or fragments thereof, and one or more antigenic peptides linked to the anti-CD40 antibody or fragments thereof, including humanized antibodies.

Palucka K.,Baylor Research Institute | Palucka K.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Banchereau J.,Hoffmann-La Roche
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2012

Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the power and specificity of the immune system to treat tumours. The molecular identification of human cancer-specific antigens has allowed the development of antigen-specific immunotherapy. In one approach, autologous antigen-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo and then re-infused into patients. Another approach is through vaccination; that is, the provision of an antigen together with an adjuvant to elicit therapeutic T cells in vivo. Owing to their properties, dendritic cells (DCs) are often called 'nature's adjuvants' and thus have become the natural agents for antigen delivery. After four decades of research, it is now clear that DCs are at the centre of the immune system owing to their ability to control both immune tolerance and immunity. Thus, DCs are an essential target in efforts to generate therapeutic immunity against cancer. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

National Health Research Institute and Baylor Research Institute | Date: 2016-09-06

Provided are methods for treating GLUT1 and related brain energy deficiencies comprising administering odd-carbon fatty acid sources, e.g., C5 or C7 fatty acid sources, and related compositions.

Palucka K.,Baylor Research Institute | Palucka K.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Banchereau J.,Baylor Research Institute
Immunity | Year: 2013

The past decade has seen tremendous developments in novel cancer therapies through the targeting of tumor-cell-intrinsic pathways whose activity is linked to genetic alterations and the targeting of tumor-cell-extrinsic factors, such as growth factors. Furthermore, immunotherapies are entering the clinic at an unprecedented speed after the demonstration that Tcells can efficiently reject tumors and that their antitumor activity can be enhanced with antibodies against immune-regulatory molecules (checkpoint blockade). Current immunotherapy strategies include monoclonal antibodies against tumor cells or immune-regulatory molecules, cell-based therapies such as adoptive transfer of ex-vivo-activated Tcells and natural killer cells, and cancer vaccines. Herein, we discuss the immunological basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines and how the current understanding of dendritic cell and Tcell biology might enable the development of next-generation curative therapies for individuals with cancer. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Antibody responses represent a key immune protection mechanism. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are the major CD4(+) T-cell subset that provides help to B cells to generate an antibody response. Tfh cells together with B cells form germinal centers (GCs), the site where high-affinity B cells are selected and differentiate into either memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells. We show here that interleukin-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1)-mediated signaling is important for in vivo Tfh response in humans. Although not prone to B cell-deficient-associated infections, subjects lacking functional IL-12Rβ1, a receptor for IL-12 and IL-23, displayed substantially less circulating memory Tfh and memory B cells than control subjects. GC formation in lymph nodes was also impaired in IL-12Rβ1-deficient subjects. Consistently, the avidity of tetanus toxoid-specific serum antibodies was substantially lower in these subjects than in age-matched controls. Tfh cells in tonsils from control individuals displayed the active form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4), demonstrating that IL-12 is also acting on Tfh cells in GCs. Thus, our study shows that the IL-12-STAT4 axis is associated with the development and the functions of Tfh cells in vivo in humans.

Toiyama Y.,Baylor Research Institute
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2013

The oncogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-21 and miR-31 negatively regulate tumor-suppressor genes. Their potential as serum biomarkers has not been determined in human colorectal cancer (CRC). To determine whether miR-21 and miR-31 are secretory miRNAs, we screened expression in medium from 2 CRC cell lines, which was followed by serum analysis from 12 CRC patients and 12 control subjects. We validated expression of candidate miRNAs in serum samples from an independent cohort of 186 CRC patients, 60 postoperative patients, 43 advanced adenoma patients, and 53 control subjects. We analyzed miR-21 expression in 166 matched primary CRC tissues to determine whether serum miRNAs reflect expression in CRC. Patient survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Although miR-21 was secreted from CRC cell lines and upregulated in serum of CRC patients, no statistically significant differences were observed in serum miR-31 expression between CRC patients and control subjects. In the validation cohort, miR-21 levels were statistically significantly elevated in preoperative serum from patients with adenomas (P < .001) and CRCs (P < .001). Importantly, miR-21 expression dropped in postoperative serum from patients who underwent curative surgery (P < .001). Serum miR-21 levels robustly distinguished adenoma (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.813; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.691 to 0.910) and CRC (AUC = 0.919; 95% CI = 0.867 to 0.958) patients from control subjects. High miR-21 expression in serum and tissue was statistically significantly associated with tumor size, distant metastasis, and poor survival. Moreover, serum miR-21 was an independent prognostic marker for CRC (hazard ratio = 4.12; 95% CI = 1.10 to 15.4; P = .03). Serum miR-21 is a promising biomarker for the early detection and prognosis of CRC.

Baylor Research Institute | Date: 2016-06-08

1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ) or a salt thereof for use in the treatment or prevention of a cardiac disease or condition in a subject who does not have Fabry disease.

The present invention includes compositions and methods for making and using anti DC-ASGPR antibodies that can, e.g., activate DCs and other cells.

Baylor Research Institute | Date: 2016-01-13

The present invention relates to an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody which is shown to bind and activate CD40. In particular secretion of high levels of IL-12p40 by dendritic cells (DC) is demonstrated.

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