Baylor Plaza

Houston, TX, United States

Baylor Plaza

Houston, TX, United States
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Vassy J.L.,VA Boston Healthcare System | Vassy J.L.,Harvard University | Christensen K.D.,41 Avenue Louis Pasteur | Christensen K.D.,Harvard University | And 57 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2017

Background: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in asymptomatic adults might prevent disease but increase health care use without clinical value. Objective: To describe the effect on clinical care and outcomes of adding WGS to standardized family history assessment in primary care. Design: Pilot randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01736566) Setting: Academic primary care practices. Participants: 9 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 100 generally healthy patients recruited at ages 40 to 65 years. Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to receive a family history report alone (FH group) or in combination with an interpreted WGS report (FH + WGS group), which included monogenic disease risk (MDR) results (associated with Mendelian disorders), carrier variants, pharmacogenomic associations, and polygenic risk estimates for cardiometabolic traits. Each patient met with his or her PCP to discuss the report. Measurements: Clinical outcomes and health care use through 6 months were obtained from medical records and audiorecorded discussions between PCPs and patients. Patients' health behavior changes were surveyed 6 months after receiving results. A panel of clinician-geneticists rated the appropriateness of how PCPs managed MDR results. Results: Mean age was 55 years; 58% of patients were female. Eleven FH + WGS patients (22% [95% CI, 12% to 36%]) had new MDR results. Only 2 (4% [CI, 0.01% to 15%]) had evidence of the phenotypes predicted by an MDR result (fundus albipunctatus due to RDH5 and variegate porphyria due to PPOX). Primary care physicians recommended new clinical actions for 16% (CI, 8% to 30%) of FH patients and 34% (CI, 22% to 49%) of FH + WGS patients. Thirty percent (CI, 17% to 45%) and 41% (CI, 27% to 56%) of FH and FH + WGS patients, respectively, reported making a health behavior change after 6 months. Geneticists rated PCP management of 8 MDR results (73% [CI, 39% to 99%]) as appropriate and 2 results (18% [CI, 3% to 52%]) as inappropriate. Limitation: Limited sample size and ancestral and socioeconomic diversity. Conclusion: Adding WGS to primary care reveals new molecular findings of uncertain clinical utility. Nongeneticist providers may be able to manage WGS results appropriately, but WGS may prompt additional clinical actions of unclear value. © 2017 American College of Physicians.


Preidis G.A.,Section of Gastroenterology | Kim K.H.,Baylor Plaza | Moore D.D.,Baylor Plaza
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2017

The nuclear receptors PPAR? (encoded by NR1C1) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR, encoded by NR1H4) are activated in the liver in the fasted and fed state, respectively. PPAR? activation induces fatty acid oxidation, while FXR controls bile acid homeostasis, but both nuclear receptors also regulate numerous other metabolic pathways relevant to liver energy balance. Here we review evidence that they function coordinately to control key nutrient pathways, including fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis in the fasted state and lipogenesis and glycolysis in the fed state. We have also recently reported that these receptors have mutually antagonistic impacts on autophagy, which is induced by PPAR? but suppressed by FXR. Secretion of multiple blood proteins is a major drain on liver energy and nutrient resources, and we present preliminary evidence that the liver secretome may be directly suppressed by PPAR?, but induced by FXR. Finally, previous studies demonstrated a striking deficiency in bile acid levels in malnourished mice that is consistent with results in malnourished children. We present evidence that hepatic targets of PPAR? and FXR are dysregulated in chronic undernutrition. We conclude that PPAR? and FXR function coordinately to integrate liver energy balance.


Wimberly H.,Baylor Plaza | Wimberly H.,Yale University | Shee C.,Baylor Plaza | Thornton P.C.,Baylor Plaza | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Double-stranded DNA ends, often from replication, drive genomic instability, yet their origin in non-replicating cells is unknown. Here we show that transcriptional RNA/DNA hybrids (R-loops) generate DNA ends that underlie stress-induced mutation and amplification. Depleting RNA/DNA hybrids with overproduced RNase HI reduces both genomic changes, indicating RNA/DNA hybrids as intermediates in both. An Mfd requirement and inhibition by translation implicate transcriptional R-loops. R-loops promote instability by generating DNA ends, shown by their dispensability when ends are provided by I-SceI endonuclease. Both R-loops and single-stranded endonuclease TraI are required for end formation, visualized as foci of a fluorescent end-binding protein. The data suggest that R-loops prime replication forks that collapse at single-stranded nicks, producing ends that instigate genomic instability. The results illuminate how DNA ends form in non-replicating cells, identify R-loops as the earliest known mutation/amplification intermediate, and suggest that genomic instability during stress could be targeted to transcribed regions, accelerating adaptation. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


PubMed | Baylor Plaza
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2013

Double-stranded DNA ends, often from replication, drive genomic instability, yet their origin in non-replicating cells is unknown. Here we show that transcriptional RNA/DNA hybrids (R-loops) generate DNA ends that underlie stress-induced mutation and amplification. Depleting RNA/DNA hybrids with overproduced RNase HI reduces both genomic changes, indicating RNA/DNA hybrids as intermediates in both. An Mfd requirement and inhibition by translation implicate transcriptional R-loops. R-loops promote instability by generating DNA ends, shown by their dispensability when ends are provided by I-SceI endonuclease. Both R-loops and single-stranded endonuclease TraI are required for end formation, visualized as foci of a fluorescent end-binding protein. The data suggest that R-loops prime replication forks that collapse at single-stranded nicks, producing ends that instigate genomic instability. The results illuminate how DNA ends form in non-replicating cells, identify R-loops as the earliest known mutation/amplification intermediate, and suggest that genomic instability during stress could be targeted to transcribed regions, accelerating adaptation.

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