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Considering the effects of climate change including rising temperatures there is an ongoing debate about which tree species and provenances will grow in Central Europe under future climate conditions. An important question of this research is to examine the adaptability and the adaptation of tree species and provenances from outside their current distribution area. A suitable tree species is black pine {Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold), which is well adapted to drought, but also to frost. In this paper, the distribution and the most important characteristics of black pine in relation to climate-related parameters are presented. For the international provenance trial seed from the entire range of Pinus nigra was collected and plants were cultivated. Four experimental plots were established on drier sites in Bavaria to verify their suitability for cultivation while five more plots were planted in Brandenburg, Hesse, Austria and Croatia. The Bavarian Institute for Forest Seeding and Planting (ASP) provided seed and plants. A review of the thousand grain weights showed significant differences with the weights of the seed in the western region much lower than in the eastern part of the distribution area of black pine. © DLV GmbH ISSN 0300-4112. Source

One of the most important factors when planting Douglas-fir is choosing the most suitable provenance for the site. Under climate change, genetic diversity as the basis for adaptation is of increasing importance. Both aspects, provenance and genetic diversity, have to be considered if natural regeneration of adult stands or planting of new stands are discussed. Numerous provenance trials have proven that the most suitable provenances for Bavaria originate from the coastal region west of the Cascade Mountains in Washington (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii). The interior variety (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca and P. menziesii var. caesia) is unsuitable both because of growth rate and susceptibility to needle cast. However, not only coastal Douglas-fir was planted in Bavaria. Isozyme analysis showed that around 20% of the Bavarian stands represented interior Douglas- fir or a mixture of coastal and interior variety. Through natural regeneration the genetic structure of the adult trees is passed on to the following generation. If gene flow through pollen or seed from neighbouring stands occurs, significant changes in the genetic composition of natural regeneration in comparison with the adult generation will be observed. The same is true for the seed collected from adult stands. This must be taken into consideration when stands are selected as registered seed collection stands. Stands with low genetic diversity and mixture of green and gray variety of Douglas-fir have to be excluded from seed collection. To maintain an appropriate level of genetic diversity in the seed, cones should be collected from at least 20 trees per stand. This should be considered the absolute minimum. Concerning the level of genetic diversity in seed collections from Germany, West Washington (USA) and France (seed orchards), no clear differences were observed. Source

Grotehusmann H.,Nordwestdeutsche Forstliche Versuchsanstalt | Janssen A.,Nordwestdeutsche Forstliche Versuchsanstalt | Haikali A.,Bayerisches Amt fur Forstliche Saat und Pflanzenzucht | Hartmann K.-U.,Staatsbetrieb Sachsenforst | And 6 more authors.

The results of the first three-year rotation in two trial series of a poplar variety test are presented. In the first series (series 603) well-known existing clones are tested for biomass production purpose in addition to already existing but previously untested clones. In the second series (series 604) clones specially created for biomass production are tested. In contrast to a control group with the clones 'Max 1', 'Hybride 275' und 'AF 2' current in both series, the mean biomass production over all clones is 12% higher in the first series and 50% higher in the second series. The best clones outperform the control group by 50% and 153% respectively. © DLV GmbH. Source

Taeger S.,TU Munich | Fussi B.,Bayerisches Amt fur Forstliche Saat und Pflanzenzucht | Konnert M.,Bayerisches Amt fur Forstliche Saat und Pflanzenzucht | Menzel A.,TU Munich
European Journal of Forest Research

Seedlings of ten provenances of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the southwestern to the central part of the species distribution range were investigated in a greenhouse experiment under dry conditions compared to a well-watered control. We conducted an isozyme study and recorded phenology as well as growth traits during the first year of growth. Genetic variability and genetic diversity increased from the westernmost provenances to those central to the distribution. Provenances from the Apennines and Spain revealed the strongest genetic differentiation compared to all others, whereas populations from Germany, Poland and Bulgaria were found to belong to the same gene pool. Seedling development and bud set were faster in northern populations. Shoot length was highest for Polish and German provenances within both regimes, populations from France and Spain had the longest roots. Reduced soil moisture slowed later development stages and delayed bud set for all provenances by about 5 days. Shoot growth decreased considerably under the dry regime for all provenances. German provenances were the most sensitive to drought, whereas Spanish provenances showed adaptation to drought conditions indicated by the lowest reduction in shoot growth relative to optimum conditions. The results of this pilot study show that under more pronounced drought conditions with repeated drought events, the so far established superiority of northeastern provenances compared to southwestern ones could diminish in the future. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Huber G.,Bayerisches Amt fur Forstliche Saat und Pflanzenzucht | Petkova K.,Sofia University | Konnert M.,Bayerisches Amt fur Forstliche Saat und Pflanzenzucht | Thiel D.,Bayerisches Amt fur Forstliche Saat und Pflanzenzucht
Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung

The projected environmental changes triggered by climate change and their velocity raise doubts, whether forest ecosystems are able to adapt to these changes by means of natural processes like gen flow, selection or migration. The European Beech, an ecologically and economically important tree species in Central Europe will also be affected by this development. Therefore silviculture is confronted with the question whether the pheno-typical adaptive capacity of local Beech trees is sufficient to ensure a sustained yield and the stability of Beech stands, or if man has to take supportive action. This study addressed this question with the help of a reciprocal transfer trial with four Bavarian Beech provenances. The cultivation under warmer and drier conditions virtually pre-empts the expected climate changes. In this way the potential of Central European provenances to adapt to these novel conditions could be tested. Simultaneously three Bulgarian Beech provenances were also included in the trial; on the one hand to act as a reference and to assess their adaptive potential under Central European climate conditions on the other. The selective transfer of forest reproductive material or assisted migration of heat- and drought-adapted provenances from the southern range margins in particular is proposed as a tool for climate adaption. This study shows that significant differences in the performance exist between provenances and that these differences can be partly attributed to an adaptation to climatic conditions at the respective region of origin. The Bulgarian provenances, for instance, yielded better germination results in Bulgaria, then the German ones, what indicates local adaption to the nursery site conditions. Likewise the leaf phenology exhibited signs of local adaptation. Usually the Bulgarian provenances flushed earlier, to make use of the favorable conditions in spring; with exception of the mountain provenance Peshtera with leaf phenology adapted to high mountain climate, i.e. late leaf flush, early leaf coloring/fall. However, in terms of height growth the pattern was more complex. German provenance showed higher growth rates than local Bulgarian provenances in the Berkovitza nursery in Bulgaria, whereas in Laufen (Germany) no clear distinction between regions of origin appeared. The strong selection during germination or a potential trade-off between drought-resistance and high growth under favorable conditions might explain this counterintuitive finding. The good growth of German Provenances in Bulgaria, but also the prolonged growth period through all provenances in Laufen compared to Berkovitza points towards a high phenotypic plasticity of height growth. At least in the propagation phase under relatively optimal conditions the German provenances are able to keep up with the Bulgarian provenances at the warmer nursery site in Bulgaria. Whether these findings can be confirmed when the seedlings are at the experimental site, where water shortages can occur in summer, remains to be proven by a future study. Source

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