De Montera B.,CNRS Developmental Biology Laboratory |
El Zeihery D.,University of Wuppertal |
Muller S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Jammes H.,CNRS Developmental Biology Laboratory |
And 10 more authors.
Cellular Reprogramming | Year: 2010
Successful somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) requires epigenetic reprogramming of a differentiated donor cell nucleus. Incorrect reprogramming of epigenetic markings such as DNA methylation is associated with compromised prenatal development and postnatal abnormalities. Clones that survive into adulthood, in contrast, are assumed to possess a normalized epigenome corresponding to their normal phenotype. To address this point, we used capillary electrophoresis to measure 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels in leukocyte DNA of 38 healthy female bovine clones that represented five genotypes from the Simmental breed and four genotypes from the Holstein breed. The estimated variance in 5mC level within clone genotypes of both breeds [0.104, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.070-0.168] was higher than between clone genotypes (0, CI: 0-0.047). We quantified the contribution of SCNT to this unexpected variability by comparing the 19 Simmental clones with 12 female Simmental monozygotic twin pairs of similar age. In Simmental clones, the estimated variability within genotype (0.0636, CI: 0.0358-0.127) was clearly higher than in twin pairs (0.0091, CI: 0.0047-0.0229). In clones, variability within genotype (0.0636) was again higher than between genotypes (0, CI: 0-0.077). Twins, in contrast, showed lower variability within genotypes (0.0091) than between genotypes (0.0136, CI: 0.00250-0.0428). Importantly, the absolute deviations of 5mC values of individual SCNT clones from their genotype means were fivefold increased in comparison to twins. Further comparisons with noncloned controls revealed DNA hypermethylation in most of the clones. The clone-specific variability in DNA methylation and DNA hypermethylation clearly show that healthy adult SCNT clones must be considered as epigenome variants. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.37M | Year: 2011
Nematodes are among the most serious threats to livestock. They cause disease and death but they also compromise production. Even a mild infection can cause a relative protein deficiency and reduce weight gain by 25% . In the UK sheep industry alone, nematode infection costs over 100 million Euros a year . The mainstay of current control measures is anthelmintic treatment but this is threatened by the evolution of drug resistance in parasite populations. Alternative or supplementary control measures are urgently needed. The most promising option for control of nematodes is exploitation of genetic variation which is cheap, surprisingly rapid and has proved to be successful in Australia and New Zealand. There are two obstacles to exploiting genetic variation in resistance to nematodes. Many farmers lack expertise in breeding for disease resistance; simplified breeding strategies that utilise markers for disease resistance will help here. Also, there are concerns about sustainability of breeding for resistance to nematodes. A systems biology approach is necessary in order to develop the comprehensive understanding necessary to simplify breeding to ensure that disease control is likely to be sustainable. A systems approach will also help to identify the most suitable combination of approaches under different circumstances. Systems biology combines a variety of disciplines in a quantitative way to achieve a coherent, consistent and comprehensive understanding of host-parasite relationships. This project aims to identify markers for host resistance to nematodes and to enhance our understanding of the host-parasite interaction. We will train a cadre of researchers with the necessary skills to apply quantitative approaches to parasitology and with the essential experience to apply this knowledge to the livestock sector.
Geishauser T.,Ontario Veterinaiy College |
Pommerien N.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Lindner P.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Niemeyer H.,Tiergesundheitsdienst Bayern |
Wittkowski C.,Tiergesundheitsdienst Bayern
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which sows consume a single dose of supplemental calcium and its effect on blood calcium levels. On day 8 postpartum the morning meal was top dressed with 360 g of caldum powder (400 nmiol Ca), 720 g of calcium powder (800 mmol Ca), or nothing (control) in 20 sows each. Mass and percentage of the powder consumed was measured. Before as well as 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours after top dressing blood was sampled and analysed for ionized calcium (mmol/1). On average 330 g (92%) of the 360 g calcium powder were consumed, and on average 550 g (76%) of the 720 g. Top dressing 400 mmol Ca significantly increased blood calcium levels 1 and 3 hours later by on average 0.60 and 0.35 mmol/1 (68% and 26%) compared to controls. Top dressing 800 mmol Ca significantly increased blood calcium 1 and 3 hours later by on average 0.52 and 0.47 mmol/1 (56% and 38%) compared to controls. Blood calcium did not differ significantly after top dressing 400 or 800 mmol Ca. Top dressing 360 g of the calcium powder tested (400 mmol Ca) may provide lactating sows with a significant calcium kick. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
Dodenhoff J.,Institute For Tierzucht |
Schuster M.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Wittmann W.,Institute For Tierzucht |
Littmann E.,Institute For Tierzucht |
And 2 more authors.
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011
Since July 2010, Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) is being applied in the two Bavarian pig performance test stations in order to measure drip loss in the longissimus muscle. This method ('Gruber Methode') has proven to be very efficient and currently allows drip loss measurements to be collected for approximately 5000 pigs per year. The data for this study included 16165 observations of drip loss for pigs of dam breeds (Large White and German Landrace and their respective crosses) as well as 3510 observations of drip loss for purebred Piétrain pigs. As expected, drip loss was higher in Piétrain than in dam breeds. Estimates of heritability were 0,28 and 0,66 in dam breeds and in Piétrain, respectively. The well-known close relationship of drip loss with pH 45 min (longissimus muscle) could be confirmed. In purebred Piétrain, estimated genetic correlations between drip loss and feed conversion rate (-0,41), daily gain (0,42) and lean meat content (0,38) were unfavourable. In dam breeds, genetic correlations between drip loss and these traits were small as were the genetic correlations between drip loss measured in purebred Piétrain and these traits measured in crossbred progeny of Piétrain sires. Estimation of breeding values for drip loss will start in 2011. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
Wassmuth R.,Osnabruck University of Applied Sciences |
Lange C.,Osnabruck University of Applied Sciences |
Mendel C.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2015
Eight hardy breeds and four mutton breeds were compared in pasture based and concentrate based lamb fattening systems. The aim was to identify the breeds with advantages in both systems. In Germany a lot of sheep flocks include both fattening systems. Hence, the performance of breeds in the two different fattening systems had to be analyzed. Fattening performance and carcass quality of four representative breeds (Coburg Fox Sheep, Weißes Bergschaf, Merino Land Sheep, German Blackheaded Mutton) are presented in this report. 291 out of 524 male lambs were fattened with free access to concentrates and 300 g hay per day and animal (concentrate group). A total of 233 male lambs grazed on pasture (pasture group). The grazing season lasted from April to June and the years 2007 to 2009 could be included. The lambs fed with concentrates had a higher daily gain, a higher dressing out percentage, a bigger area of the M. longissimus dorsi and higher fat content in the carcass. The lambs of the concentrate group had a more tender meat. They also had a slightly higher intramuscular fat content but at a low level and hence without an effect on the taste of the lamb meat. Breed differences were smaller when lambs were fattened on pasture. Within the concentrate group lambs from Merino Land Sheep and Blackheaded Mutton Sheep showed a better performance than the other two breeds. All breeds and both fattening systems led to a good co6:co3-fatty acid-relation which was below 5:1. Lambs fattened on pasture had higher proportions of conjugated linoleic acids. In lamb meat quality only small breed differences could be observed and it could be concluded that none of the four considered breeds was favourable. It was concluded that in flocks with both fattening systems (concentrates plus hay and pasture) Merino Land Sheep and Blackheaded Mutton Sheep achieve a higher fattening performance and a better carcass quality. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
Influence on intramuscular fat content of pork: Effects of supplying fatteners insufficiently with amino acids on pig performance, carcass composition and meat quality [Zur beeinfiussung des intramuskulären fettgehalts von schweinefleisch: Auswirkungen einer defizitären aminosäurenversorgung der mastschweine auf mastleistung, schlachtkörper-Und fleischqualität]
Fischer K.,Institute For Sicherheit Und Qualitat Bei Fleisch |
Lindner J.P.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Baulain U.,Institute For Nutztiergenetik Mariensee
Fleischwirtschaft | Year: 2010
The aim of the study presented was to investigate, how far supplying fattening pigs deficiently with limiting amino acids can increase the intramuscular fat, and what kind of consequences have to be expected regarding fattening performance, carcass composition and further meat quality traits. In total 45 male castrates and 49 females (Piétrain-NN*German Landrace) were randomized to 4 feeding groups: The control group (I) got a diet with demand-oriented contents of amino acids. The other 3 groups were fed in the final fattening phase (starting from about 70 kg live weight) with diets containing insufficient proportions (60% of demand) of lysine (group II), methionine + cystine (group III) or lysine + methionine + cystine (group IV). In general considerable changes only showed up in those two groups (II and IV) provided inadequately with lysine. This conclusion regards in particular group II. Animals of this treatment consumed about 0.4 kg more feed per kg live weight gain than the control pigs, whereas the daily gain decreased - not significantly - by 60 g. Carcasses were fatter, so that the lean content were reduced by 2.5 percentage points. The chemical-physical meat quality traits such as pH value, electrical conductivity and water-holding capacity did not change. The intramuscular fat content showing at two different points of the M. longissimus dorsi and at the M. semimembranosus values of 1.2,1.4 and 2.7%, respectively in the control group, increased only due to the lysine deficit to 2.0, 2.2 and 3.7%, respectively. Moreover in the intramuscular fat the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids rose significantly at the expense of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. The described effects however only tended to result in improvements of the sensory evaluation and the instrumentally measured tenderness.
Rucknagel J.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg |
Brandhuber R.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Hofmann B.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg |
Lebert M.,Ingenieurburo fur Bodenphysik |
And 4 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2010
Mechanical precompression stress is a yardstick for the strength and compressibility of soils. The default method for the estimation of precompression stress is the graphic method according to Casagrande. It involves a subjective perception by the engineer who not only determines the point of the highest curvature visually, but decides also which points are to be used for generating the virgin compression line. In order to avoid such subjective approaches, mathematical models for the determination of precompression stress have been developed emanating from the Casagrande method. These models estimate the smallest radius of the curvature based on the minimum of the second numerical derivative. The paper has the aim to quantify the variance of subjectivity implied by the person executing the graphic method, the variance of different model approaches and the accuracy of the latter in handling the graphic values. Additionally we wanted to investigate the effect of different parameters on the ordinate of the diagram and the effect of the first load step on the precompression stress. To understand these relationships, stress/bulk density functions and stress/void ratio functions measured on 13 sites were analysed by five experienced but independent engineers and by use of three mathematical models. The mean errors of precompression stress estimations by the different testers were 0.01-0.12 and by the models 0.10-0.87 on a logarithmic scale. Expressed in kPa, increasing mean errors were observed with rising precompression stress, due to delogarithmization. For the graphical determination, they reached approx. 10-20 kPa at precompression stress levels of 60-150 kPa in typical subsoils; this means 15% on average. The handling of graphically obtained values by help of mathematical models disclosed considerable deviations between them. In the logarithmic variant, the mean absolute errors varied from 0.09 (9 kPa) to 0.40 (30 kPa) and the determination coefficients from 0.71 to 0.96. Another influence on the level of precompression stress has been observed when different variables were plotted on the ordinate of the graph. The graphically obtained values of precompression stress and those shown in the dry bulk density graph exceed the values calculated on the basis of the void ratio by the factor 1.2-1.5. Furthermore, it can be stated that in soil-compression tests with an initial load of 25 kPa higher precompression stress values were obtained than with lower initial loads (5 kPa), if the precompression values were low. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Test of different premium broiler genotypes under animal welfare label conditions. Part I: Fattening and slaughter yield [Untersuchungen unterschiedlicher langsam wachsender Premiumhähnchen unter Tierschutz-Label-Konditionen. Teil I: Mast- und Schlachtleistungskriterien]
Damme K.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Keppler C.,University of Kassel |
Hausleitner M.,Bruterei Sud ZN der BWE Bruterei Weser Ems GmbH and Co. KG |
Bachmeier J.,Bruterei Sud ZN der BWE Bruterei Weser Ems GmbH and Co. KG |
And 3 more authors.
European Poultry Science | Year: 2015
In this study, four slowly growing broiler hybrids were evaluated concerning fattening performance, slaughter yield and Animal Welfare parameters (Part 2) for Label conditions. Therefore, 750 unsexed broiler chicks of each of the commercial breeds Rowan Ranger, Hubbard JA 957, Hubbard JA 987 and CobbSasso 175 were examined over a fattening period of 42 days at the Institute for Poultry education and applied research in Kitzingen, Germany. On day 42 of life, a random sample of 25 male and female broilers per breed were randomly selected and slaughtered. Additionally, the water intake per pen was measured by water meters and the litter was evaluated weekly according to a point-score. Significant differences were detected concerning fattening performance and European Production Index (EPI). Following ranking in EPI was observed: Hubbard JA 987 (305 EPI points), CobbSasso 175 (270 EPI points), Hubbard JA 957 (258 EPI points) and Rowan Ranger (242 EPI points). For slaughterhouses and processing companies, the Rowan Ranger broiler has, despite lower daily gain and slaughter weight, advantages in carcass dressing and the most valuable breast part followed by Hubbard JA 987, CobbSasso 175 and Hubbard JA 957. The Rowan Ranger broiler excels by a significant lower water/feed proportion (1.554 l H20/kg feed) compared to the other tested origins (1.636–1.660 l H20/kg feed), which resulted in a positive litter quality. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
The relationship between technical efficiency and economic success: The case of Bavarian dairy farms [Der Zusammenhang zwischen technischer Effizienz und wirtschaftlichem Erfolg: Eine Analyse für bayerische Milchviehbetriebe]
Kellermann M.,TU Munich |
Salhofer K.,TU Munich |
Wintzer W.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Stockinger C.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft
German Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011
The objective of this article is to reveal the relationship between technical efficiency and the economic success of dairy farms and to determine farm specific factors affecting both. The data set contains observations of more than 2 000 Bavarian dairy farms in an unbalanced panel covering the years 2000 to 2008. We use the stochastic frontier approach to analyze the technical efficiency of farms. Economic success is measured by the performance indicator "Nettorentabilität", which is the rate of return on farm owned production factors. Findings show an average technical efficiency of 88,2 % and an average "Nettorentabilität" of approximately 57 %. A rank correlation test indicates a strong positive relationship between technical efficiency and economic success. We calculate the marginal effects of possible determinants of technical efficiency and economic success and reveal that both improve with farm mangers education level, full-time farming and soil quality.
Marzin S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research |
Hanemann A.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft |
Sharma S.,Saatzucht Josef Breun GmbH and Co KG |
Hensel G.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
A family of putative PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR (PEI) genes, which were detected in the genomic region co-segregating with the resistance gene Rrs2 against scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune in barley, were characterized and tested for their possible involvement in mediating resistance to the pathogen by complementation and overexpression analysis. The sequences of the respective genes were derived from two BAC contigs originating from the susceptible cultivar 'Morex'. For the genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3, HvPEI4 and HvPEI6, specific haplotypes for 18 resistant and 23 susceptible cultivars were detected after PCR-amplification and haplotype-specific CAPS-markers were developed. None of the tested candidate genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3 and HvPEI4 alone conferred a high resistance level in transgenic over-expression plants, though an improvement of the resistance level was observed especially with OE-lines for gene HvPEI4. These results do not confirm but also do not exclude an involvement of the PEI gene family in the response to the pathogen. A candidate for the resistance gene Rrs2 could not be identified yet. It is possible that Rrs2 is a PEI gene or another type of gene which has not been detected in the susceptible cultivar 'Morex' or the full resistance reaction requires the presence of several PEI genes. © 2016 Marzinet al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.