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Steinau an der Straße, Germany

The aim of the study presented was to investigate, how far supplying fattening pigs deficiently with limiting amino acids can increase the intramuscular fat, and what kind of consequences have to be expected regarding fattening performance, carcass composition and further meat quality traits. In total 45 male castrates and 49 females (Piétrain-NN*German Landrace) were randomized to 4 feeding groups: The control group (I) got a diet with demand-oriented contents of amino acids. The other 3 groups were fed in the final fattening phase (starting from about 70 kg live weight) with diets containing insufficient proportions (60% of demand) of lysine (group II), methionine + cystine (group III) or lysine + methionine + cystine (group IV). In general considerable changes only showed up in those two groups (II and IV) provided inadequately with lysine. This conclusion regards in particular group II. Animals of this treatment consumed about 0.4 kg more feed per kg live weight gain than the control pigs, whereas the daily gain decreased - not significantly - by 60 g. Carcasses were fatter, so that the lean content were reduced by 2.5 percentage points. The chemical-physical meat quality traits such as pH value, electrical conductivity and water-holding capacity did not change. The intramuscular fat content showing at two different points of the M. longissimus dorsi and at the M. semimembranosus values of 1.2,1.4 and 2.7%, respectively in the control group, increased only due to the lysine deficit to 2.0, 2.2 and 3.7%, respectively. Moreover in the intramuscular fat the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids rose significantly at the expense of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. The described effects however only tended to result in improvements of the sensory evaluation and the instrumentally measured tenderness.

Eight hardy breeds and four mutton breeds were compared in pasture based and concentrate based lamb fattening systems. The aim was to identify the breeds with advantages in both systems. In Germany a lot of sheep flocks include both fattening systems. Hence, the performance of breeds in the two different fattening systems had to be analyzed. Fattening performance and carcass quality of four representative breeds (Coburg Fox Sheep, Weißes Bergschaf, Merino Land Sheep, German Blackheaded Mutton) are presented in this report. 291 out of 524 male lambs were fattened with free access to concentrates and 300 g hay per day and animal (concentrate group). A total of 233 male lambs grazed on pasture (pasture group). The grazing season lasted from April to June and the years 2007 to 2009 could be included. The lambs fed with concentrates had a higher daily gain, a higher dressing out percentage, a bigger area of the M. longissimus dorsi and higher fat content in the carcass. The lambs of the concentrate group had a more tender meat. They also had a slightly higher intramuscular fat content but at a low level and hence without an effect on the taste of the lamb meat. Breed differences were smaller when lambs were fattened on pasture. Within the concentrate group lambs from Merino Land Sheep and Blackheaded Mutton Sheep showed a better performance than the other two breeds. All breeds and both fattening systems led to a good co6:co3-fatty acid-relation which was below 5:1. Lambs fattened on pasture had higher proportions of conjugated linoleic acids. In lamb meat quality only small breed differences could be observed and it could be concluded that none of the four considered breeds was favourable. It was concluded that in flocks with both fattening systems (concentrates plus hay and pasture) Merino Land Sheep and Blackheaded Mutton Sheep achieve a higher fattening performance and a better carcass quality. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Koenig M.,Max Rubner Institute | Hahn G.,Max Rubner Institute | Damme K.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft | Schmutz M.,Firma Lohmann Tierzucht GmbH
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was the development of a new conventional and ethically justifiable production system for the rearing of male laying-type cockerels to produce coquelets. The purpose was to find an alternative to the present culling of one-day-old male layer chicks, which amounts in Germany to more than 40 millions per year. In the course of several rearing periods, economic efficiency, suitable management factors, and carcass product quality were to be evaluated. The experiment was performed on commercial broilers (Ross 308) and different genotypes of laying-type cockerels: medium heavy, brown-eggshell Lohmann Brown (LB) and Hy-Line Brown (Hyline); light, white-eggshell Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Dekalb White (Dekalb). The cockerels were reared on deep Utter, and were fed standard diets ad libitum. The first step was to find the appropriate genotype by analyzing growth performance and carcass composition. The broilers attained the intended carcass weight of about 650 g after 19 days, the laying-type cockerels after 47 days (LB, Hy-Line) or 49 days (LSL, Dekalb). The results on growth performance showed that it was reasonable to stop fattening duration at this point. Feed conversion was calculated to be 1:1.2 for broilers, and 1:2.45 for egg-laying types. The weights of valuable parts (i.e. breast, legs) were higher for broilers than for laying-type cockerels. The relative carcass composition was not different between the laying-type breeds. Our study could contribute to link the production of a high-quality niche product with the solution of ethical problems in animal production.

Rucknagel J.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Brandhuber R.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft | Hofmann B.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Lebert M.,Ingenieurburo fur Bodenphysik | And 4 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2010

Mechanical precompression stress is a yardstick for the strength and compressibility of soils. The default method for the estimation of precompression stress is the graphic method according to Casagrande. It involves a subjective perception by the engineer who not only determines the point of the highest curvature visually, but decides also which points are to be used for generating the virgin compression line. In order to avoid such subjective approaches, mathematical models for the determination of precompression stress have been developed emanating from the Casagrande method. These models estimate the smallest radius of the curvature based on the minimum of the second numerical derivative. The paper has the aim to quantify the variance of subjectivity implied by the person executing the graphic method, the variance of different model approaches and the accuracy of the latter in handling the graphic values. Additionally we wanted to investigate the effect of different parameters on the ordinate of the diagram and the effect of the first load step on the precompression stress. To understand these relationships, stress/bulk density functions and stress/void ratio functions measured on 13 sites were analysed by five experienced but independent engineers and by use of three mathematical models. The mean errors of precompression stress estimations by the different testers were 0.01-0.12 and by the models 0.10-0.87 on a logarithmic scale. Expressed in kPa, increasing mean errors were observed with rising precompression stress, due to delogarithmization. For the graphical determination, they reached approx. 10-20 kPa at precompression stress levels of 60-150 kPa in typical subsoils; this means 15% on average. The handling of graphically obtained values by help of mathematical models disclosed considerable deviations between them. In the logarithmic variant, the mean absolute errors varied from 0.09 (9 kPa) to 0.40 (30 kPa) and the determination coefficients from 0.71 to 0.96. Another influence on the level of precompression stress has been observed when different variables were plotted on the ordinate of the graph. The graphically obtained values of precompression stress and those shown in the dry bulk density graph exceed the values calculated on the basis of the void ratio by the factor 1.2-1.5. Furthermore, it can be stated that in soil-compression tests with an initial load of 25 kPa higher precompression stress values were obtained than with lower initial loads (5 kPa), if the precompression values were low. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Damme K.,Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Landwirtschaft | Keppler C.,University of Kassel | Hausleitner M.,Bruterei Sud ZN der BWE Bruterei Weser Ems GmbH and Co. KG | Bachmeier J.,Bruterei Sud ZN der BWE Bruterei Weser Ems GmbH and Co. KG | And 3 more authors.
European Poultry Science | Year: 2015

In this study, four slowly growing broiler hybrids were evaluated concerning fattening performance, slaughter yield and Animal Welfare parameters (Part 2) for Label conditions. Therefore, 750 unsexed broiler chicks of each of the commercial breeds Rowan Ranger, Hubbard JA 957, Hubbard JA 987 and CobbSasso 175 were examined over a fattening period of 42 days at the Institute for Poultry education and applied research in Kitzingen, Germany. On day 42 of life, a random sample of 25 male and female broilers per breed were randomly selected and slaughtered. Additionally, the water intake per pen was measured by water meters and the litter was evaluated weekly according to a point-score. Significant differences were detected concerning fattening performance and European Production Index (EPI). Following ranking in EPI was observed: Hubbard JA 987 (305 EPI points), CobbSasso 175 (270 EPI points), Hubbard JA 957 (258 EPI points) and Rowan Ranger (242 EPI points). For slaughterhouses and processing companies, the Rowan Ranger broiler has, despite lower daily gain and slaughter weight, advantages in carcass dressing and the most valuable breast part followed by Hubbard JA 987, CobbSasso 175 and Hubbard JA 957. The Rowan Ranger broiler excels by a significant lower water/feed proportion (1.554 l H20/kg feed) compared to the other tested origins (1.636–1.660 l H20/kg feed), which resulted in a positive litter quality. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

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