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Scholey A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Bauer I.,Swinburne University of Technology | Neale C.,Swinburne University of Technology | Savage K.,Swinburne University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2013

Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken immediately before and after the battery. Five additional participants underwent post-treatment fMRI scanning during Rapid Visual Information Processing and Inspection Time activation tasks. The multivitamin with guaraná treatment was associated with significantly enhanced Serial Threes performance and self-rated contentment. fMRI revealed that both multivitamin treatments increased activation in areas associated with working memory and attentional processing, with the effect being greater in the multivitamin with guaraná condition. These data confirm the acute benefits of multivitamins with guaraná on mood and cognitive performance. Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time increased brain activation from multivitamin preparations both with and without guaraná, as measured using fMRI. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


White D.J.,Swinburne University of Technology | Camfield D.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Camfield D.A.,University of Wollongong | Maggini S.,Bayer Consumer Care Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Nutritional Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Objectives: Relatively few studies have explored the possibility of acute cognitive effects of multivitamin ingestion. This report explores the acute brain electrophysiological changes associated with multivitamin and mineral supplementation, with and without guaraná, using the steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP). Methods: Based on the known SSVEP correlates of A-X continuous performance task (CPT) performance, and sensitivity to acute psychopharmacological manipulations, the A-X CPT was adopted as a task paradigm to explore treatment-related neurophysiological changes in attentional processing. Twenty healthy non-smoking adults aged 21–39 years (mean age = 28.35 years, SD = 5.52) took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced crossover design study. Results: The study demonstrated both transient and tonic changes in the SSVEP response during completion of the A-X CPT following multivitamin and mineral treatment both with and without guaraná. Transient changes in SSVEP response in prefrontal regions were observed after a single dose of a multivitamin and mineral preparation indicative of enhanced activity within brain regions engaged by the attentional demands of the task. This pattern of change in frontal regions was correlated with improved behavioural performance after treatment with the multivitamin and mineral combination. Where tonic shifts in SSVEP response were investigated, multivitamin and mineral treatment was associated with a pattern of increased inhibition across posterior regions, with enhanced excitatory processing in prefrontal regions. In contrast, multivitamin and mineral treatment with additional guaraná showed a tonic shift towards greater excitatory processes after a single treatment, consistent with the caffeine content of this treatment. Discussion: While preliminary in nature, these findings suggest a single multivitamin/mineral dose is sufficient to impact on functional brain activity in task-related brain regions. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2016


Maggini S.,Bayer Consumer Care Ltd | Wenzlaff S.,Bayer Consumer Care Ltd
Journal of International Medical Research | Year: 2010

With the progressive elimination of dietary protein-energy deficits, deficiencies of micronutrients are emerging as the limiting factors in ensuring children's optimal health. Data from several countries in Asia and Latin America indicate that deficiencies of vitamin C and zinc continue to be at alarming levels. This article reviews the roles of vitamin C and zinc in supporting children's growth and development, with a particular focus on the complementary roles they play in supporting immune functions and combating infections. The contemporary relevance of vitamin C and zinc deficiency in the Asian and Latin American regions, both undergoing a rapid nutritional transition, are also discussed. Overall, there is increasing evidence that deficiency of vitamin C and zinc adversely affects the physical and mental growth of children and can impair their immune defences. Nutrition should be the main vehicle for providing these essential nutrients; however, supplementation can represent a valid support method, especially in developing regions. © 2010 Field House Publishing LLP.


Canali R.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Natarelli L.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Leoni G.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Azzini E.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 4 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2014

In order to study the effects of vitamin C supplementation on gene expression and compare its action between physiological and inflammatory conditions, a pilot study was set up utilizing microarray and qPCR technologies. Five healthy volunteers were supplemented with 1 g vitamin C (Redoxon®) per day for five consecutive days. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated before and just after the last supplementation, and RNA was isolated for the Affymetrix gene 1.0 ST chip analysis. PBMNC were also, ex vivo, treated with LPS, and gene expression was quantified by means of a "Human NFkB Signaling" qPCR array. Only a very moderate effect on the baseline gene expression modulation was associated with vitamin C supplementation. However, in spite of the limited number of subjects analyzed, vitamin C supplementation resulted in a markedly different modulation of gene expression upon the inflammatory stimulus, specifically at the level of the MyD88-dependent pathway and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 synthesis. This study suggests that vitamin C supplementation in healthy subjects, not selected according to a specific genetic profile, consuming an adequate amount of vitamin C, and having a satisfactory vitamin C plasma concentration at the baseline, does not result in a significant modification of gene expression profile. Under this satisfactory micronutrient status, supplementation of vitamin C is "buffered" within a homeostatic physiological equilibrium. Differently, following a second "hit" constituted of an inflammatory stimulus such as LPS, able to trigger a critical burst to the normal physiological state, the higher availability of ascorbic acid emerges, and results in a significant modulation of cell response. © The Author(s) 2014.


Haskell C.F.,Northumbria University | Robertson B.,Northumbria University | Jones E.,Northumbria University | Forster J.,Northumbria University | And 4 more authors.
Human Psychopharmacology | Year: 2010

Objectives: A significant minority of the population consume multi-vitamins/minerals for their putative health benefits, including potentially beneficial effects on cognitive performance, fatigue and mood. The current study investigated the effect of supplementation with a multi-vitamin/mineral on fatigue and cognitive function in healthy females. Methods: In this placebo-controlled, double blind, randomized, parallel groups trial the effect of a multi-vitamin/mineral (Supradyn®) was assessed in 216 females aged 25-50 years. Participants attended the laboratory before and 9 weeks after commencing treatment. During both visits cognitive function and the modulation of task related mood/fatigue were assessed in two discrete 20-min assessment periods during which participants completed a four-module version of the Multi-Tasking Framework. Results: Those in the vitamin/mineral group exhibited an attenuation of the negative effects of extended task completion on mood/fatigue. Multi-tasking performance for this group was also improved in terms of accuracy across all tasks, and on two of the individual tasks (Mathematical Processing and Stroop) in terms of both faster and more accurate responses. Analysis of a subsection (N = 102) demonstrated significant reductions in homocysteine levels following the vitamins/mineral supplement. Conclusions: These findings suggest that healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Bayer Consumer Care Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of international medical research | Year: 2010

With the progressive elimination of dietary protein-energy deficits, deficiencies of micronutrients are emerging as the limiting factors in ensuring childrens optimal health. Data from several countries in Asia and Latin America indicate that deficiencies of vitamin C and zinc continue to be at alarming levels. This article reviews the roles of vitamin C and zinc in supporting childrens growth and development, with a particular focus on the complementary roles they play in supporting immune functions and combating infections. The contemporary relevance of vitamin C and zinc deficiency in the Asian and Latin American regions, both undergoing a rapid nutritional transition, are also discussed. Overall, there is increasing evidence that deficiency of vitamin C and zinc adversely affects the physical and mental growth of children and can impair their immune defences. Nutrition should be the main vehicle for providing these essential nutrients; however, supplementation can represent a valid support method, especially in developing regions.

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