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Berlin, Germany

Gemzell-Danielsson K.,Karolinska University Hospital | Schellschmidt I.,Bayer | Apter D.,Sexual Health Clinic
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2012

Objective: To identify an appropriate dose for a new contraceptive levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Design: Randomized, open-label, three-arm, phase II study. Setting: Thirty-seven centers in five European countries. Patient(s): Parous or nulliparous women aged 21-40 years. Intervention(s): Treatment with LNG-IUSs with initial in vitro release rates of 12 or 16 μg/d (LNG-IUS12/16) or 20 μg/d (Mirena). Main Outcome Measure(s): Pearl index, bleeding profile, ease/pain of placement/removal, adverse events. Result(s): A total of 738 subjects had an LNG-IUS placed (LNG-IUS12, n = 239; LNG-IUS16, n = 245; Mirena, n = 254). One, 5, and 0 pregnancies occurred in the LNG-IUS12, LNG-IUS16, and Mirena groups, respectively (3-year unadjusted Pearl indices: 0.17, 0.82, and 0). The bleeding profiles were similar in all groups, although total bleeding and spotting days decreased with increasing LNG dose. During 3 years, 10 subjects in the LNG-IUS12 (2 women), LNG-IUS16 (3 women), and Mirena (5 women) groups reported serious adverse events, possibly related to study treatment. Placement of LNG-IUS12 and LNG-IUS16 was considered easy in 94% versus 86.2% in the Mirena group and 72.3% in the LNG-IUS12/LNG-IUS16 group reported either "no pain" or only "mild pain" during placement versus 57.9% in the Mirena group. Conclusion(s): LNG-IUS12 and LNG-IUS16 provided effective contraception, acceptable bleeding patterns, and were well tolerated compared with Mirena. © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc.


News Article | September 6, 2016
Site: phys.org

The German pharmaceutical giant Bayer AG sweetened its bid for Monsanto Tuesday, saying that its latest offer, now worth almost $56 billion reflects, "constructive negotiations" in its quest to build a global chemical and seed company.


With about $1 million in funding from the National Science Foundation, a small company has developed "OrganoBait," a hockey puck-shaped product packed with an artificial attractant crabs and lobsters love. Commercial fishermen have long experimented with alternative baits. They have tried other fish species, processed slabs of horseshoe crab, even cow hide and pigs feet. Some products remain on the market; many have gone quickly. No one has made commercially successful synthetic bait, and even animal-based alternatives don't always gain market acceptance, said Bob Bayer, a professor of veterinary science at the University of Maine who studies lobsters and has worked on attractants for 30 years. "If somebody comes up with a good one, it will be used," Bayer said. "If it's effective and cost effective." The lobster catch has been booming, but the fleet is suffering the most acute bait shortage facing the fishing industry. Lobster traps typically are baited with herring. However, not enough herring are being caught in the waters far off New England. If prolonged, experts say, the shortage could raise the price and reduce the availability of lobsters and crabs. Development of synthetic baits could cut into the $20 billion U.S. bait fishery, which dates to the Colonial era and plays a role in some other commercial fisheries, as well as in food products and nutritional supplements. Fishermen caught more than 200 million pounds of herring and 1.2 billion pounds of menhaden in 2014. New England fishing managers are guiding the industry through a shortage of herring offshore by limiting the number of days they can fish closer to the coast. Without the restrictions, officials say, fishermen would be at risk of exceeding quotas the government establishes to protect fish species from overexploitation. OrganoBait, developed by the Greensboro, North Carolina, firm Kepley Biosystems, is different from other alternative baits. It's not an animal product, but instead a calcium-based tablet made with synthetic materials that replicate the smell of decaying fish to attract lobsters and crabs. Kepley president Anthony Dellinger said the product could take pressure off forage fish, which some environmentalists say need protection. "This is an area that can benefit from some science and technology," Dellinger said. "You can just eliminate the bait sector and it will be more fish in the ocean. Less impact on sea turtles, dolphins, all of the cute little critters." The product has been tested with blue crab fishermen off Virginia and North Carolina since 2014 and with New Jersey blue crab fishermen and Florida stone crab fishermen since last year. There was also a pilot test with lobster fishermen in Nova Scotia, and an extensive test is scheduled for November. In coastal Virginia, blue crab fisherman Malcolm Luebkert is one of a handful of fishermen testing out the synthetic bait, and he said he's bracing for a future when bait fish shortages become the norm. So far, he said, the synthetic alternative seems effective. "When menhaden becomes scarce, we need an alternative, and we need one that's good," he said. Mark Pfister, a bait dealer who intends to sell OrganoBait in Florida once it is on the market, said the early returns on stone crabs are promising. The price point for the product has not been determined, though Dellinger said it will be priced competitively with bait fish, which can cost about 30 cents per pound. "There have been baits out before, but they've all failed," Pfister said. "This one looks like it's not going to fail." Getting fishermen on board will present challenges. Stephen Train, a lobster fisherman based in Long Island, Maine, said he's more inclined to suffer high prices and volatility in bait fish availability than take a chance on an unproven alternative. "I don't know if it would fish," Train said. Blue crabs sit in a basket behind blocks Organobait synthetic bait after being caught out of the Great Wicomico river in Heathsville, Va., Thursday, Aug. 18, 2016. Fisheries for lobsters and crabs have grappling with a shortage of bait that synthetic bait may help with. (AP Photo/Steve Helber) Commercial crabber Mal Luebkert, left, pulls a crab pot out of the Great Wicomico river in Heathsville, Va., Thursday, Aug. 18, 2016. President of Kepley Biosystems, Anthony Dellinger, left, research assistant, Lee Robertson, second from right, and owner Chris Kepley, second from left, look on. Fisheries for lobsters and crabs have grappling with a shortage of bait that synthetic bait may help with. (AP Photo/Steve Helber) Blue crabs in the water in a crab pot in the Great Wicomico river in Heathsville, Va., Thursday, Aug. 18, 2016. A block of Organobait sits in the bait trap of the crab pot. Fisheries for lobsters and crabs have grappling with a shortage of bait that synthetic bait may help with. (AP Photo/Steve Helber) Explore further: Research suggests green crab is risky bait for lobster industry


News Article | June 8, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

A proposal seeks to ban the import of American lobsters by the 28 member-nations of the European Union (EU). The move comes after Sweden found 32 of these lobsters in its waters, deeming them invasive species that are likely to overtake the native lobster populations and spread diseases. American fishery officials expressed disagreement with the plan, with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) assistant administrator Eileen Sobeck penning a letter for EU officials and highlighting the proposal’s lack of scientific basis. The letter includes NOAA's and the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans’ data analysis and a paper from University of Maine scientist Robert Steneck — both arguing against the Swedish findings. But why do American lobsters suddenly have a bad rap in Europe? “American lobster can carry diseases and parasites that can spread to the European lobster and cause extremely high mortality rate,” said Swedish climate and environment minister Asa Romson in a statement, adding that it will also compete for local food and habitat. The 85-page report on American lobsters posing a “very high” risk to native species came after Sweden discovered 32 American species in their waters in an eight-year period, including 26 in 2014. These foreign lobsters have also been seen off the coast of Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and the United Kingdom, the report went further. Four of the American lobsters found were said to carry eggs, including those with traits from both American and Swedish lobsters. It will be “impossible to eradicate” the established species due to natural dispersal capability, the report stated. According to Romson, Scandinavian lobsters are quite small and delicate, and any hybrid formed with their American counterparts can result in “negative genetic effects” and threaten the European variety. The Swedish marine and water management agency listed a deadly bacterial shell disease on its website as a potential consequence, although adding that evidence behind the link remains low. The country also cited parasites eating American lobsters’ eggs as a potential threat to crabs and other seafood. Not Backed By "Best Available Science" U.S. and Canadian authorities, however, were quick to question the report claims. “Our initial findings suggest that these conclusions are not supported by the best available science,” wrote Sobeck, not dismissing the idea that the proposal could be violating international trade rules. Robert Bayer, executive director of the Lobster Institute at the University of Maine, also disputed many of the report's claims. Bacterial disease has remained dormant for at least a decade now while shell disease is not contagious, he said. Europe imports around 13,000 metric tons of American lobsters annually. The goods are delivered alive in order to preserve their freshness. The possible ban is expected to deliver a hard blow to the American and Canadian lobster market, which export $200 million of their fresh products to Europe every year. NOAA, too, refused to comment on whether retaliation will follow in the form of banning European seafood imports. Steven Wilson, its Office of International Affairs and Seafood Inspection’s deputy director, said the agency is not in a position to elaborate on trade matters — only tasked to scientifically vouch for how American lobsters will not thrive on those overseas waters or overcome the native species. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | August 26, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Lobster and crab fishermen have baited traps with dead herring for generations, but an effort to find a synthetic substitute for forage fish is nearing fruition just as the little fish are in short supply, threatening livelihoods in a lucrative industry. With about $1 million in funding from the National Science Foundation, a small company has developed "OrganoBait," a hockey puck-shaped product packed with an artificial attractant crabs and lobsters love. Commercial fishermen have long experimented with alternative baits. They have tried other fish species, processed slabs of horseshoe crab, even cow hide and pigs feet. Some products remain on the market; many have gone quickly. No one has made commercially successful synthetic bait, and even animal-based alternatives don't always gain market acceptance, said Bob Bayer, a professor of veterinary science at the University of Maine who studies lobsters and has worked on attractants for 30 years. "If somebody comes up with a good one, it will be used," Bayer said. "If it's effective and cost effective." The lobster catch has been booming, but the fleet is suffering the most acute bait shortage facing the fishing industry. Lobster traps typically are baited with herring. However, not enough herring are being caught in the waters far off New England. If prolonged, experts say, the shortage could raise the price and reduce the availability of lobsters and crabs. Development of synthetic baits could cut into the $20 billion U.S. bait fishery, which dates to the Colonial era and plays a role in some other commercial fisheries, as well as in food products and nutritional supplements. Fishermen caught more than 200 million pounds of herring and 1.2 billion pounds of menhaden in 2014. New England fishing managers are guiding the industry through a shortage of herring offshore by limiting the number of days they can fish closer to the coast. Without the restrictions, officials say, fishermen would be at risk of exceeding quotas the government establishes to protect fish species from overexploitation. OrganoBait, developed by the Greensboro, North Carolina, firm Kepley Biosystems, is different from other alternative baits. It's not an animal product, but instead a calcium-based tablet made with synthetic materials that replicate the smell of decaying fish to attract lobsters and crabs. Kepley president Anthony Dellinger said the product could take pressure off forage fish, which some environmentalists say need protection. "This is an area that can benefit from some science and technology," Dellinger said. "You can just eliminate the bait sector and it will be more fish in the ocean. Less impact on sea turtles, dolphins, all of the cute little critters." The product has been tested with blue crab fishermen off Virginia and North Carolina since 2014 and with New Jersey blue crab fishermen and Florida stone crab fishermen since last year. There was also a pilot test with lobster fishermen in Nova Scotia, and an extensive test is scheduled for November. In coastal Virginia, blue crab fisherman Malcolm Luebkert is one of a handful of fishermen testing out the synthetic bait, and he said he's bracing for a future when bait fish shortages become the norm. So far, he said, the synthetic alternative seems effective. "When menhaden becomes scarce, we need an alternative, and we need one that's good," he said. Mark Pfister, a bait dealer who intends to sell OrganoBait in Florida once it is on the market, said the early returns on stone crabs are promising. The price point for the product has not been determined, though Dellinger said it will be priced competitively with bait fish, which can cost about 30 cents per pound. "There have been baits out before, but they've all failed," Pfister said. "This one looks like it's not going to fail." Getting fishermen on board will present challenges. Stephen Train, a lobster fisherman based in Long Island, Maine, said he's more inclined to suffer high prices and volatility in bait fish availability than take a chance on an unproven alternative. "I don't know if it would fish," Train said.

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