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Alibhai S.M.H.,University of Toronto | Alibhai S.M.H.,Institute of Health Policy | Breunis H.,University of Toronto | Timilshina N.,University of Toronto | And 11 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND This study examined the impact of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) on physical function and quality of life (QOL) over 36 months. METHODS Eighty-seven men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PC) who were starting continuous ADT and 2 control groups (86 PC controls without ADT and 86 healthy controls), matched by age and education, were enrolled. Physical function was assessed with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), grip strength, and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. QOL was measured with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey of the Medical Outcomes Study. Subjects were assessed at the baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months. Mixed effects regression models were fitted with adjustments for baseline covariates. RESULTS The 6MWT distance improved initially and then stabilized in both control groups but remained unchanged for ADT users (P=.0030). Grip strength remained stable in control groups but declined sharply in the ADT group by 3 months and then remained stable to 36 months (P=.0041). TUG scores declined gradually in the ADT group over 36 months but were unchanged in control groups (P=.0008). Aggregate physical QOL declined in ADT users over time but remained stable in control groups (P=.0001). Aggregate mental QOL was stable in all groups. Declines seen in the first year of ADT use generally persisted over 36 months and were independent of age. CONCLUSIONS Previously noted physical side effects over the first 12 months of ADT persisted or continued to worsen over an additional 2 years with no evidence of recovery. Exercise interventions to counteract these declines may be warranted. Cancer 2015;121:2350-2357. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Source


Zakzanis K.K.,University of Toronto | McDonald K.,University of Toronto | Troyer A.K.,Baycrest Center for Geriatric Care
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology | Year: 2011

We set out to examine the sensitivity of switching and clustering component scores of verbal fluency in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Clustering and switching scores were compared between patients with mTBI and healthy normal controls as well as those with moderate TBI and severe TBI. Fifty-four healthy controls along with 20 mild TBI, 8 moderate TBI, and 12 severe TBI patients were included in the study. Our findings demonstrate that component score effect sizes were larger than those of total words generated for both phonemic and semantic fluency. This pattern of finding held true regardless of comparison group. In addition, semantic fluency component scores were found to correspond to larger component score effect sizes than did phonemic fluency component scores. Our findings demonstrate that component scores derived from the Controlled Oral Word Association Test may be sufficient to reliably capture the effects of unremitting injury (i.e., more than 3 months post status) to the frontal and temporal brain as evinced in cases of unremitting mTBI. This differential pattern of performance provides preliminary evidence for the potential usefulness of switching and clustering in the assessment of mTBI. Given the small sample sizes employed in our study, however, future studies are needed to determine whether component measures of verbal fluency have discriminative ability. © 2011 Psychology Press. Source


Monette M.C.E.,University of Windsor | Leach L.,Baycrest Center for Geriatric Care
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences | Year: 2013

Objective: The current study sought to determine if the Kaplan-Baycrest Neurocognitive Assessment (KBNA) was capable of discriminating individuals with subjective memory complaints associated with depression from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Scores on 12 subtests of the KBNA were compared for 27 participants with MCI and 28 participants being treated for depression using Bonferroni correct between-group comparisons for each subtest. KBNA subtest scores were corrected for age and education. Results: Significant between-group differences were obtained on six subtests with large effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranging from 1.19-1.58. The six subtests involved encoding and delayed episodic memory for verbal and visual information. Using logistic regression analysis, five subtests of the KBNA were able to correctly classify 96.4% of study participants. Conclusion: The results from this preliminary investigation indicate that the KBNA has the potential to serve as a brief and reliable assessment tool capable of distinguishing individuals with subjective memory complaints associated with depression from individuals with MCI in a clinical setting. Limitations of the current study and future research are discussed. Source


Patent
Baycrest Center For Geriatric Care | Date: 2012-10-05

The present invention provides methods and systems for assessing cognitive function by comparing a subjects eye movements within and across distinct classes of images.


Grigorovich A.,Clinical Research | Gomez M.,Clinical Research | Gomez M.,University of Toronto | Psych C.,Baycrest Center for Geriatric Care
Journal of Burn Care and Research | Year: 2013

To examine neuropsychological functioning in survivors of electrical injury with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This was a prospective research study that was done in an outpatient clinic of a rehabilitation hospital. Thirty participants were recruited for the study between January 2008 and December 2010. All participants completed questionnaires measuring depression, PTSD, and a series of standardized psychometric measures of neuropsychological functioning. Domains tested included verbal and visual memory, attention, and executive functioning. A correlation analysis was performed to explore association between variables. Based on the level of PTSD symptoms, subjects were divided into three groups: no PTSD, subclinical PTSD, and PTSD, and a series of one-way analyses of variance were done to explore this association further. A series of analyses of covariance were done to control for depression. PTSD had a significant (P < .05) negative association with immediate verbal memory and immediate and delayed visual memory. Subjects with PTSD had significantly (P < .05) worse scores on immediate and delayed verbal memory and visual memory than those with subclinical PTSD or no PTSD. Measures of attention, working memory, and executive functioning were not significantly different between PTSD groups. When depression was introduced as a covariate, verbal and visual memory scores were not significantly different between PTSD groups. The findings suggest that there is a negative association between PTSD and cognitive performance that may be related to depression among those with electrical injury. A larger sample size is warranted to explore this further. Copyright © 2013 by the American Burn Association. Source

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