East Longmeadow, MA, United States
East Longmeadow, MA, United States

Bay Path University is a private university located in Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Bay Path offers both all-women Bachelor degree programs , and co-educational Master degree programs . The University also has a One Day A Week College for adult women and the American Women's College, the first all-women online college. Founded in 1897 as the Bay Path Institute, the college has gone through several name changes and upgrades to its accreditation status. From 1988 to 2014 it was known as Bay Path College. Bay Path University is a member of the Cooperating Colleges of Greater Springfield, an eight-college consortium. Wikipedia.

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Fahlke J.M.,Museum fur Naturkunde | Coombs M.C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2013

The rich mammalian fauna of the Turolian fossil site Dorn-Dürkheim 1 (Rheinhessen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany) contains numerous remains of a chalicotheriine chalicothere. These are 171 dental remains, 1 fragment of a lower jaw symphysis, and 8 carpal and tarsal bones. A morphological description and comprehensive comparison with other Eurasian Chalicotheriinae are given. The Dorn-Dürkheim 1 chalicothere was comparatively small in body size and resembled members of the Anisodon clade rather than Chalicotherium within the Chalicotheriinae. A phylogenetic analysis corroborates the assignment of the Dorn-Dürkheim 1 chalicothere to Anisodon sp. We used low-magnification stereoscopic microwear analysis in order to reconstruct the diet of Anisodon sp. from Dorn-Dürkheim 1. Counts of small pits are higher than in earlier Eurasian and American chalicotheres. Anisodon sp. from Dorn-Dürkheim 1 most likely fed on leaves and fruit. There is no indication of the inclusion of highly abrasive material, grit, or dust in its diet. These results are in accordance with the interpretation of the Dorn-Dürkheim 1 environment as a tropical savannah to woodland. The dating of the Dorn-Dürkheim 1 fauna as Mammal Neogene (MN) 11 makes this Anisodon the latest known chalicothere in Central Europe. Based on morphological similarities with late Miocene chalicotheriines from Asia and southeastern Europe, we assume that it is an immigrant that arrived in the course of the expansion of faunas from the southeast at the beginning of the Turolian. © 2013 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Solounias N.,York College | Solounias N.,American Museum of Natural History | Rivals F.,Rovira i Virgili University | Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College
Paleobiology | Year: 2010

A large sample of the Pikermi and Samos ungulates was examined by microwear analysis using a light stereomicroscope (561 extinct and 809 extant comparative specimens). The results were used to infer the dietary adaptations of individual species and to evaluate the Pikermian Biome ungulate fauna. Many of the bovids have wear consistent with mixed feeding, although a few mesodont taxa apparently enjoyed an exclusive browsing and or grazing diet. The giraffids spanned the entire dietary spectrum of browsing, mixed feeding, and grazing, but most of the three-toed horses (Hippotherium) were hypsodont grazers. The colobine monkey Mesopithecus pentelici displays microwear consistent with a mixed fruit and leaf diet most likely including some hard objects. Similar results were obtained from prior scanning electron microscopy microwear studies at 500 times magnification and from the light microscope method at 35 times magnification for the same species. Results show that diet can differ between species that have very similar gross tooth morphology. Our results also suggest that the Pikermian Biome was most likely a woodland mosaic that provided a diversity of opportunities for species that depended on browsing as well as species that ate grass. The grasses were most likely C3 grasses that would grow in shaded areas of the woodland, glades, and margins of water. The ungulate component of the Pikermi and Samos fauna was more species-rich and more diverse in diet than the ungulates observed in modern African forests, woodlands, or savannas, yet dietarily most similar to the ungulates found in woodland elements of India and to some extent of Africa. It is unlikely that the Pikermi and Samos ungulates inhabited dense forests because we find no evidence for heavy fruit browsing. Conversely, a pure savanna is unlikely because many mixed feeders are present as well as browsers. Extant woodland African species are morphologically and trophically very similar to the African savanna species. Therefore the evolution of grazing and of hypsodont morphology for Africa may have evolved within the Plio-Pleistocene woodlands of Africa. Our results show that major dietary and morphologic ungulate evolution may take place within woodlands rather than as a consequence of species moving into savannas both during the late Miocene of Pikermi and Samos and during the PleistoceneRecent of Central Africa. © 2010 The Paleontological Society.


Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College | Sise P.J.,56 Water Lane | Coombs M.C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2011

This low magnification stereomicrowear study samples a broad range of chalicotheres (Perissodactyla, Chalicotherioidea), including basal chalicotheres and the two chalicotheriid subfamilies Schizotheriinae and Chalicotheriinae, primarily including species from North America and Europe, but also some from Asia. The schizotheriines Moropus, Tylocephalonyx, and Metaschizotherium and the chalicotheriines Anisodon and Chalicotherium are best represented. Paleodiets are interpreted via discriminant analysis, using comparison of microwear variables from fossil chalicothere teeth with those from a database of extant ungulates with known diets. The results suggest that all of the chalicotheres in the study were browsers, with no evidence of significant grass consumption. Basal chalicotheres, like basal equids, seem to have been standard fruit-dominated browsers. Stereomicrowear agrees with mesowear results by Schulz et al. (2007) and Schulz and Fahlke (2009) for Metaschizotherium bavaricum, Metaschizotherium fraasi, Anisodon grande, and Chalicotherium goldfussi in showing a highly abrasive aspect to the diet. In these species, hard food objects such as fibrous fruits, seeds, pits, and nuts may have abraded the teeth (based on high pit counts, the presence of large puncture pits, and many individuals with coarse to hypercoarse scratches). Anisodon grande and C. goldfussi, despite their relatively short, brachydont teeth, show the highest degree of abrasion within the studied sample. Moropus and Tylocephalonyx from North America show somewhat different but also abrasive microwear; in these taxa the resistant foods may have been twigs and bark (large pits common, but gouging more prevalent than puncture pits). A preliminary comparison of stereomicrowear on DP4, the deciduous upper fourth premolar, with that on molars suggests that juveniles consumed similar foods as adults but without the most abrasive elements. Some important methodological differences regarding the scoring of microwear features by different low-magnification microwear methodologies are discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College | Rivals F.,Rovira i Virgili University
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

Dietary adaptations of both Tertiary and Quaternary representatives of North American Camelidae were examined through deep evolutionary time (via hypsodonty index), though ecological time (via mesowear analysis), and through the last few days of life (via microwear) by examining molar teeth. Fossil samples are from the Great Plains, Great Basin, Arizona, and Florida and span from the early late Eocene (late Chadronian-early Orellan) to the late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean). Results were compared to those obtained on modern camels and llamas and other ungulates of known dietary behavior. Camels apparently exploited open habitats early on in their evolution as evidenced by the extreme pitting of their enamel surfaces. Grasses were likely consumed early on in their history (e.g., Poebrotherium) but the vast majority of taxa were committed browsers. Results show that the hypsodonty pattern (deep time adaptation) and mesowear pattern (cumulative abrasion index) are very similar. Hypsodonty indices and mesowear scores decrease in the middle Miocene, a time when a few taxa also incorporate fruit and/or seeds in their browse. Crown height and dietary abrasion increase in the late Miocene and Pliocene, a time when some grazers and mixed feeders also appear, but then decrease in Pleistocene and Recent forms. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Fahlke J.M.,Leibniz Institute For Evolutions Und Biodiversitatsforschung | Bastl K.A.,University of Vienna | Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College | Gingerich P.D.,University of Michigan
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2013

Archaeocete whales originated from within terrestrial artiodactyls around the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and gave rise to modern toothed whales (Odontoceti) and baleen whales (Mysticeti) at the end of the Eocene. The cetacean transition from life on land to life in water is documented by archaeocete fossils reflecting stages of increasing aquatic adaptation throughout the Eocene. During this time, feeding and diet in cetaceans supposedly changed from herbivory or omnivory to piscivory and carnivory. It is still not fully understood whether an early dietary shift was the reason for cetaceans to abandon land, or whether aquatic feeding evolved later, at a semiaquatic stage. To assess archaeocete diet and its evolution through time, we analyzed dental enamel microwear of an early Eocene pakicetid, middle Eocene protocetids, and middle-to-late Eocene basilosaurids. We quantified wear features on shearing facets of upper and lower cheek teeth using low-magnification stereoscopic microwear analysis. Results were compared with the microwear of extant fully-aquatic odontocetes, semiaquatic pinnipeds, and terrestrial carnivores. The microwear of archaeocetes strongly resembles that of modern pinnipeds and, to a lesser extent, odontocetes that include cephalopods, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods, as well as marine birds and mammals besides fish in their diet. The degree of aquatic adaptation in archaeocetes seems to be reflected in their diet. Aquatic feeding is already indicated for the late early Eocene terrestrial Pakicetus inachus since its microwear already resembles that of the middle Eocene semiaquatic protocetids. Middle-to-late Eocene fully-aquatic basilosaurids turn out to be separated from the protocetids and P. inachus in all parts of the study and apparently ingested more or larger hard items. We conclude that cetaceans were not primarily piscivorous, and that piscivory and carnivory, where present in modern cetaceans, evolved from a very diverse diet in Eocene archaeocetes that included various kinds of invertebrates and vertebrates. Inclusion of mammals in the cetacean diet is not a recent dietary specialization but might be as old as the middle Eocene, implied by a microwear signal in Qaisracetus arifi similar to those of the modern hyena and the killer whale. Consumption of mammal meat was very likely well-established in middle-to-late Eocene forms (heavy gouging and extremely destructive macroscopic wear in Basilosaurus isis). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bastl K.,University of Vienna | Semprebon G.,Bay Path College | Nagel D.,University of Vienna
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2012

Cheek teeth of extant Carnivora were examined, and different microwear patterns were found for taxa with different dietary habits. A broad taxonomic sample including Hyaenidae, Felidae, Canidae, Viverridae and Nandiniidae was chosen in order to elucidate the microwear pattern for a bone/meat, meat/bone, meat, mixed carnivorous (meat/plant matter) and fruit based diet. Enamel microwear for the hyaenodont Hyaenodon was compared to this extant sample. Heavy gouging and extensive pitting and scratching of enamel surfaces, as well as the occurrence of zigzag Hunter-Schreger bands in the enamel microstructure analyses, indicate the inclusion of tough foods like bone in the Hyaenodon diet. Species from different continents (North America and European taxa) occupied slightly different dietary niches. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Vaill A.L.,Bay Path College | Testori P.A.,Bay Path College
Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network | Year: 2012

In order for faculty to make a successful transition to teaching in the online classroom, they must receive professional development specifically geared toward this challenge. Bay Path College offers a faculty development program that incorporates three distinct components all geared toward aiding faculty to adjust to teaching online and providing assistance while courses are in progress with the goal of ultimately impacting the overall online learning experience for faculty and students alike. This article describes the College's three-tiered approach to faculty development and explains the role that initial training, peer mentoring, and ongoing support play in preparing faculty and shaping their confidence in their abilities as an online instructor.


Koenigswald W.V.,University of Bonn | Kalthoff D.C.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010

The cheek teeth of Ectoganus and Stylinodon, the most derived genera of Taeniodonta following recent phylogenies, show various morphological and microstructural characteristics that are unusual for herbivores of their size. Their continuously growing premolars and molars have blunt occlusal surfaces without shearing facets and enamel is restricted to the lingual and buccal sides of the teeth. The anterior and posterior walls of the teeth are covered with a thick layer of cementum to which the periodontal ligament is attached. The enamel band is relatively thin. The schmelzmuster is one-layered and features weakly developed Hunter-Schreger bands that are only recognizable in longitudinal section. In cross-section, the enamel prisms show a 'keyhole pattern' with an incomplete prism sheath. There is no interprismatic matrix. The microstructure of the dentine has the regular mammalian pattern and shows no special similarity to that of xenarthrans. Taeniodonts seem to have used their hypsodont cheek teeth almost exclusively for squeezing and some crushing of food and only to a minor degree for grinding. Weakly developed Hunter-Schreger bands indicate only light loading during mastication. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 620.85K | Year: 2014

This project at Bay Path College is having a significant impact on the size of the pool of qualified workers who are capable of pursuing careers in science in the Western New England Region. One of the goals of the project is to increase the retention and baccalaureate degree attainment of women, including minority and first-generation college students, who will graduate well-prepared to pursue careers or graduate programs in the life sciences.

The program is providing scholarships to 40 students based on financial need and academic eligibility. Group tutoring offered through the grant augments tutoring already offered on campus. This project is providing opportunities for student research, mentoring, co-curricular activities, and STEM career exploration and development. The project is improving retention in the first two years, increasing participation in research, increasing degree attainment, and preparing graduates for work in the life sciences after graduation.


Bay Path College will increase the academic success, engagement and retention of undergraduate women enrolled in baccalaureate degree programs in Biology, Forensic Science and Cybersecurity. The purpose of this design and development research project is to refine, expand and pilot strategies that will lead to improved learning, engagement and retention outcomes, particularly among low-income, minority and first-generation college students. The project seeks to implement and extend recommendations for effective teaching in the biological sciences promulgated through the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education Initiative. This will include an expansion of course redesign and faculty professional development to implement active, student-centered teaching and learning strategies in upper-level science courses, and integrate core concepts and competencies throughout the curriculum.

Project activities will be coordinated through the new Bay Path College Center of Excellence for Women in Science, a facility designed to nurture womens scientific career aspirations and ensure they develop the experience, skills and confidence to be competitive, to succeed and to thrive in their professional lives. The project will also build upon successful results from a prior NSF grant through the Scholarships in STEM (S-STEM) Program. Broadening participation of students from groups that are traditionally underrepresented in STEM will be achieved through high impact practices, including early student research, mentoring by faculty and STEM professionals, academic enrichment and career exploration through internships and other experiential learning opportunities. These strategies are expected to improve the academic achievement, engagement and retention of all participating students. Formative and summative evaluation will address two questions (1) Does course redesign through implementation of Vision and Change recommendations lead to improved student learning outcomes in these courses at Bay Path College? And (2) Does broadening student participation in high impact learning experiences through the project lead to increased student engagement and retention in STEM in the first two years, and are there differences for low-income Pell-eligible, minority and first-generation college students? Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to determine the effectiveness of course redesign on student learning. Students will participate in the National Survey of Student Engagement during their first and final years of college. Dissemination of new materials and results will be presented at national meetings such as the High Impact Technology Exchange and the National Association of Biology Educators conferences. Journal articles will be submitted to The American Biology Teacher.

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