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East Longmeadow, MA, United States

Bay Path University is a private university located in Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Bay Path offers both all-women Bachelor degree programs , and co-educational Master degree programs . The University also has a One Day A Week College for adult women and the American Women's College, the first all-women online college. Founded in 1897 as the Bay Path Institute, the college has gone through several name changes and upgrades to its accreditation status. From 1988 to 2014 it was known as Bay Path College. Bay Path University is a member of the Cooperating Colleges of Greater Springfield, an eight-college consortium. Wikipedia.


Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College | Rivals F.,Rovira i Virgili University
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

Dietary adaptations of both Tertiary and Quaternary representatives of North American Camelidae were examined through deep evolutionary time (via hypsodonty index), though ecological time (via mesowear analysis), and through the last few days of life (via microwear) by examining molar teeth. Fossil samples are from the Great Plains, Great Basin, Arizona, and Florida and span from the early late Eocene (late Chadronian-early Orellan) to the late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean). Results were compared to those obtained on modern camels and llamas and other ungulates of known dietary behavior. Camels apparently exploited open habitats early on in their evolution as evidenced by the extreme pitting of their enamel surfaces. Grasses were likely consumed early on in their history (e.g., Poebrotherium) but the vast majority of taxa were committed browsers. Results show that the hypsodonty pattern (deep time adaptation) and mesowear pattern (cumulative abrasion index) are very similar. Hypsodonty indices and mesowear scores decrease in the middle Miocene, a time when a few taxa also incorporate fruit and/or seeds in their browse. Crown height and dietary abrasion increase in the late Miocene and Pliocene, a time when some grazers and mixed feeders also appear, but then decrease in Pleistocene and Recent forms. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Solounias N.,York College | Solounias N.,American Museum of Natural History | Rivals F.,Rovira i Virgili University | Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College
Paleobiology | Year: 2010

A large sample of the Pikermi and Samos ungulates was examined by microwear analysis using a light stereomicroscope (561 extinct and 809 extant comparative specimens). The results were used to infer the dietary adaptations of individual species and to evaluate the Pikermian Biome ungulate fauna. Many of the bovids have wear consistent with mixed feeding, although a few mesodont taxa apparently enjoyed an exclusive browsing and or grazing diet. The giraffids spanned the entire dietary spectrum of browsing, mixed feeding, and grazing, but most of the three-toed horses (Hippotherium) were hypsodont grazers. The colobine monkey Mesopithecus pentelici displays microwear consistent with a mixed fruit and leaf diet most likely including some hard objects. Similar results were obtained from prior scanning electron microscopy microwear studies at 500 times magnification and from the light microscope method at 35 times magnification for the same species. Results show that diet can differ between species that have very similar gross tooth morphology. Our results also suggest that the Pikermian Biome was most likely a woodland mosaic that provided a diversity of opportunities for species that depended on browsing as well as species that ate grass. The grasses were most likely C3 grasses that would grow in shaded areas of the woodland, glades, and margins of water. The ungulate component of the Pikermi and Samos fauna was more species-rich and more diverse in diet than the ungulates observed in modern African forests, woodlands, or savannas, yet dietarily most similar to the ungulates found in woodland elements of India and to some extent of Africa. It is unlikely that the Pikermi and Samos ungulates inhabited dense forests because we find no evidence for heavy fruit browsing. Conversely, a pure savanna is unlikely because many mixed feeders are present as well as browsers. Extant woodland African species are morphologically and trophically very similar to the African savanna species. Therefore the evolution of grazing and of hypsodont morphology for Africa may have evolved within the Plio-Pleistocene woodlands of Africa. Our results show that major dietary and morphologic ungulate evolution may take place within woodlands rather than as a consequence of species moving into savannas both during the late Miocene of Pikermi and Samos and during the PleistoceneRecent of Central Africa. © 2010 The Paleontological Society. Source


Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College | Sise P.J.,56 Water Lane | Coombs M.C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2011

This low magnification stereomicrowear study samples a broad range of chalicotheres (Perissodactyla, Chalicotherioidea), including basal chalicotheres and the two chalicotheriid subfamilies Schizotheriinae and Chalicotheriinae, primarily including species from North America and Europe, but also some from Asia. The schizotheriines Moropus, Tylocephalonyx, and Metaschizotherium and the chalicotheriines Anisodon and Chalicotherium are best represented. Paleodiets are interpreted via discriminant analysis, using comparison of microwear variables from fossil chalicothere teeth with those from a database of extant ungulates with known diets. The results suggest that all of the chalicotheres in the study were browsers, with no evidence of significant grass consumption. Basal chalicotheres, like basal equids, seem to have been standard fruit-dominated browsers. Stereomicrowear agrees with mesowear results by Schulz et al. (2007) and Schulz and Fahlke (2009) for Metaschizotherium bavaricum, Metaschizotherium fraasi, Anisodon grande, and Chalicotherium goldfussi in showing a highly abrasive aspect to the diet. In these species, hard food objects such as fibrous fruits, seeds, pits, and nuts may have abraded the teeth (based on high pit counts, the presence of large puncture pits, and many individuals with coarse to hypercoarse scratches). Anisodon grande and C. goldfussi, despite their relatively short, brachydont teeth, show the highest degree of abrasion within the studied sample. Moropus and Tylocephalonyx from North America show somewhat different but also abrasive microwear; in these taxa the resistant foods may have been twigs and bark (large pits common, but gouging more prevalent than puncture pits). A preliminary comparison of stereomicrowear on DP4, the deciduous upper fourth premolar, with that on molars suggests that juveniles consumed similar foods as adults but without the most abrasive elements. Some important methodological differences regarding the scoring of microwear features by different low-magnification microwear methodologies are discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Fahlke J.M.,Museum fur Naturkunde | Coombs M.C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2013

The rich mammalian fauna of the Turolian fossil site Dorn-Dürkheim 1 (Rheinhessen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany) contains numerous remains of a chalicotheriine chalicothere. These are 171 dental remains, 1 fragment of a lower jaw symphysis, and 8 carpal and tarsal bones. A morphological description and comprehensive comparison with other Eurasian Chalicotheriinae are given. The Dorn-Dürkheim 1 chalicothere was comparatively small in body size and resembled members of the Anisodon clade rather than Chalicotherium within the Chalicotheriinae. A phylogenetic analysis corroborates the assignment of the Dorn-Dürkheim 1 chalicothere to Anisodon sp. We used low-magnification stereoscopic microwear analysis in order to reconstruct the diet of Anisodon sp. from Dorn-Dürkheim 1. Counts of small pits are higher than in earlier Eurasian and American chalicotheres. Anisodon sp. from Dorn-Dürkheim 1 most likely fed on leaves and fruit. There is no indication of the inclusion of highly abrasive material, grit, or dust in its diet. These results are in accordance with the interpretation of the Dorn-Dürkheim 1 environment as a tropical savannah to woodland. The dating of the Dorn-Dürkheim 1 fauna as Mammal Neogene (MN) 11 makes this Anisodon the latest known chalicothere in Central Europe. Based on morphological similarities with late Miocene chalicotheriines from Asia and southeastern Europe, we assume that it is an immigrant that arrived in the course of the expansion of faunas from the southeast at the beginning of the Turolian. © 2013 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Koenigswald W.V.,University of Bonn | Kalthoff D.C.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Semprebon G.M.,Bay Path College
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010

The cheek teeth of Ectoganus and Stylinodon, the most derived genera of Taeniodonta following recent phylogenies, show various morphological and microstructural characteristics that are unusual for herbivores of their size. Their continuously growing premolars and molars have blunt occlusal surfaces without shearing facets and enamel is restricted to the lingual and buccal sides of the teeth. The anterior and posterior walls of the teeth are covered with a thick layer of cementum to which the periodontal ligament is attached. The enamel band is relatively thin. The schmelzmuster is one-layered and features weakly developed Hunter-Schreger bands that are only recognizable in longitudinal section. In cross-section, the enamel prisms show a 'keyhole pattern' with an incomplete prism sheath. There is no interprismatic matrix. The microstructure of the dentine has the regular mammalian pattern and shows no special similarity to that of xenarthrans. Taeniodonts seem to have used their hypsodont cheek teeth almost exclusively for squeezing and some crushing of food and only to a minor degree for grinding. Weakly developed Hunter-Schreger bands indicate only light loading during mastication. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Source

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