Crewther B.T.,Health and Food Group |
Crewther B.T.,Southern Cross University of Australia |
Lowe T.E.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Ingram J.,Health and Food Group |
Weatherby R.P.,Southern Cross University of Australia
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness | Year: 2010
Aim. To validate the testosterone (T) and Cortisol (C) concentration measures in saliva in response to short high-intensity exercise. Methods. Nine healthy males provided matching saliva and plasma samples before and after a 30-second Wingate cycle test. Saliva was assayed for T (Sal-T) and C (Sal-C) concentrations, and plasma for total T and total C, sex hormone-binding globulin, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin concentrations. The plasma free and bioavailable hormones were calculated. Results. The Sal-T and plasma T correlations were weak to moderate (r=0.57-0.61) when examined between individuals (pooled data for all participants), but these relationships improved (r = 0.71-0.73) within individuals (data for each participant on average). The Sal-C and plasma C correlations were strong both between individuals (r=0.81-0.84) and within individuals (r=0.83-0.84). The peak relative increases in Sal-T (35±9%) and Sal-C (63±29%) concentrations exceeded the plasma total and/or free hormones, but not the bioavailable hormones. Albumin (10±3%) and CBG (16±4%) also increased with exercise, along with blood lactate (943±119%). Conclusions. The Sal-T and Sal-C concentration measures were validated in response to short high-intensity exercise, especially for individuals. The hormonal changes in saliva were also more sensitive to exercise (i.e. greater relative responses) than the plasma total and/or free hormones, potentially arising from changes in the binding proteins and blood lactate. These findings support the use of saliva as a medium for steroid determination in sport.
Tonkin J.D.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Tonkin J.D.,Xi'an Jiaotong - Liverpool University |
Wright L.A.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Wright L.A.,Scion Research |
David B.O.,Waikato Regional Council
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2012
The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in the rope treatments. The success of fish ascending treatment pipes suggests mussel spat rope may be effective for enabling the passage of this and other similar fish species through otherwise impassable culverts with velocity barriers. © 2012 by the authors.
Paul Scofield R.,Canterbury Museum |
Christie D.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Sagar P.M.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research |
Sullivan B.L.,Cornell University
New Zealand Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012
Since the Ornithological Society of New Zealand (OSNZ) was founded in 1939 its primary objective has been the collection and dissemination of information on New Zealand's birds. For 70 years the Society has maintained databases on all aspects of the behaviour, population sizes and movements of New Zealand's avifauna. This paper summarises what information members of the OSNZ collect and curate and discusses an Internet initiative (eBird) the Society has recently put in place to allow members to record observations and give researchers easy access to these data. © New Zealand Ecological Society.
Khan J.R.,University of Auckland |
Trembath C.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Pether S.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research |
Bruce M.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research |
And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2014
Induced-swimming can improve the growth and feed conversion efficiency of finfish aquaculture species, such as salmonids and Seriola sp., but some species, such as Atlantic cod, show no or a negative productivity response to exercise. As a possible explanation for these species-specific differences, a recent hypothesis proposed that the applicability of exercise training, as well as the exercise regime for optimal growth gain (ER opt growth), was dependent upon the size of available aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). This study aimed to test this hypothesis by measuring the growth and swimming metabolism of hapuku, Polyprion oxygeneios, to different exercise regimes and then reconciling the metabolic costs of swimming and specific dynamic action (SDA) against AMS. Two 8-week growth trials were conducted with ERs of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 body lengths per second (BL s-1). Fish in the first trial showed a modest 4.8% increase in SGR over static controls in the region 0.5-0.75 BL s-1 whereas the fish in trial 2 showed no significant effect of ER on growth performance. Reconciling the SDA of hapuku with the metabolic costs of swimming showed that hapuku AMS is sufficient to support growth and swimming at all ERs. The current study therefore suggests that exercise-induced growth is independent of AMS and is driven by other factors. © 2014 Khan, Trembath, Pether, Bruce, Walker and Herbert.
David B.O.,Waikato Regional Council |
Tonkin J.D.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Tonkin J.D.,Senckenberg Institute |
Taipeti K.W.T.,Waikato Regional Council |
Hokianga H.T.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014
Culvert pipes are regularly used around the world for conveying stream flows underground, through embankments or under road crossings. Installation of these features can have significant negative effects on the passage of freshwater biota and potentially exclude many species from large areas of river networks. We investigated the installation of mussel spat ropes as a potentially rapid and cost-effective tool for improving passage of freshwater biota through culvert pipes where internal barrel conditions impede passage. We assessed passage success for two fish species, juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1972) and adult inanga Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns 1842), and one migratory shrimp, Paratya curvirostris (Heller 1862), through culverts of differing length (3 and 6 m), slope (1·5 and 3°) and flow (0·24 and 0·75 L s-1). We hypothesized that ropes would enhance the passage success of these three species, but success rates would differ between species and trial combinations. Ropes resulted in a reduced water velocity within culvert barrels and significantly improved passage success for all three species. Shrimp benefited most by the presence of ropes, being unable to negotiate any of the pipe combinations in their absence, but exhibiting varying rates of success across all combinations with their presence. Both G. maculatus and O. mykiss were able to negotiate some of the non-roped pipe combinations, but as the level of difficulty increased, successful passage was only achieved with the ropes present. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that this relatively inexpensive and easy-to-install tool has the potential to substantially improve passage for a range of aquatic biota through various culvert scenarios. We consider that ropes would be particularly useful in situations where internal culvert access is difficult and where various culvert parameters (slope, flow, length) result in internal barrel hydraulics that would normally limit or exclude passage of aquatic biota. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Rasalato E.,University of The South Pacific |
Maginnity V.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Brunnschweiler J.M.,ETH Zurich
Environmental Conservation | Year: 2010
Local ecological knowledge (LEK) and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) have the potential to improve community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) by providing information about the presence, behaviour and ecology of species. This paper explores the potential of LEK and TEK to identify shark river habitats in Fiji, learn how locals regard and use sharks, and capture ancestral legends and myths that shed light on relationships between these animals and local people. Interviews with representatives from 22 villages, communities and fishing settlements associated with seven riverine areas on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu confirmed the presence of sharks in estuaries and rivers on Fiji. Hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.) and larger sharks were reported being close to the river mouths, whereas an unknown species of small size with a rounded snout was reported up to >30 km upriver. Local people consume shark meat as a source of protein, but sharks also have a rich background in ancestral stories and play an important part in Fijian myths and legends, resulting in the support of conservation measures by local villagers. Copyright © 2010 Foundation for Environmental Conservation.
Hunt S.,University of Waikato |
Smith K.,University of Waikato |
Hamerton H.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic |
Sargisson R.J.,University of Waikato
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management | Year: 2014
Following the Rena grounding and oil spill in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, an Incident Command Centre was established which, among other tasks, coordinated a volunteer clean-up effort. We interviewed volunteers and organisers to gain insight into the efficacy of the volunteer coordination effort. Volunteers praised the system of communication and the involvement of indigenous groups. They expressed a desire for better training, more flexibility and community autonomy, a quicker uptake of volunteer support, and the use of social media. Locating the Incident Command Centre in a single site aided interaction between experts, and the sharing of resources. Overall, the volunteer coordination was considered a success. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goundar S.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2012
The IT Industry and the wider media are abuzz with the phrase "cloud computing" and most of us have no idea what this latest terminology means. This paper starts by addressing the question - "what is cloud computing, and provides an understanding of the technology?" Cloud computing is related to technologies that has been around for ages, however, what can be done differently with the same technology when integrated with Internet is cloud computing. Individuals who might be considering cloud computing services for personal use will also benefit by the information provided. Web sites like Flickr, FaceBook, YouTube and others are used to store and share personal photos, music and videos for free. Easy as: 1). Register, 2). Upload, 3). Share. Free and easy, there has to be a downside, and there is awareness regarding this. There is information regarding cloud computing for businesses! Businesses, who wish to get on the "flight to the clouds" like their peers to keep their heads above the "cloud" and competition. With cloud service providers, businesses can tap into the IT services that they need, when they need, for as long as they need; without investing in any IT infrastructure. The result is a far more agile and cost-effective IT services and this paper looks at how and why. After looking at the good of cloud computing, the bad, and the ugly is revealed. Not all our experiences on the Internet have been totally positive. A range of security and trust issues exist. Individuals and businesses ask is "how secured are their information once it is with the cloud service providers?" There is analysis on the ownership of data and information stored with the cloud service providers and taxonomy of data that you post on social networking web sites. Finally, anecdotes about cloud computing that support our endeavour to compute in the cloud. Cloud computing is not a hype, it is a reality. Cloud computing is not a fad, it is here to stay. The question is no longer "will cloud computing happen?" but "how you are going to exploit this technology?". © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Sargisson R.J.,University of Waikato |
Hunt S.,University of Waikato |
Hanlen P.,University of Waikato |
Smith K.,University of Waikato |
Hamerton H.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management | Year: 2012
We explore the experiences of people who volunteer to help remediate the effects of non-natural environmental disasters. Following the grounding of the Rena, volunteers were engaged to clean up the resulting oil spill on the beaches of Tauranga, New Zealand. Volunteers were later invited to respond to an online questionnaire about their experiences. More women than men responded, and respondents tended to be older, and engaged in the paid workforce or retired. Greater membership in community organizations was associated with a greater participation in clean-up events. Respondents were positive about the experience, and were more positive when they had actually participated in a clean-up event, with positivity remaining high even after multiple volunteer occasions. Recommendations are made for increasing volunteer participation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lin C.-S.A.,Bay of Plenty Polytechnic
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies | Year: 2013
This paper proposes a generational model genetic algorithm-based system for solving real-world large scale set partitioning problems (SPP). The SPP is an important combinatorial optimization and has many applications like airline crew scheduling. Two improved genetic algorithm (GA) components are introduced and applied to the generational model GA system that can effectively find feasible solutions for difficult and large scale set partitioning problems. The two components are the grouping crossover operator and a modified local optimizer. The experimental results in this research show that the performance of this GA based system is capable of producing optimal or near-optimal solutions for large scale instances of SPP.