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Carballido A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Cuzzi J.N.,NASA | Hogan R.C.,Bay Area Environmental Research Institute
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

We use magnetohydrodynamic simulations to measure relative speeds of solids in a protoplanetary disc with turbulence generated by the magnetorotational instability. Relative velocities are calculated as functions of particle Stokes number St, which measures the aerodynamic coupling to the gas. When relative velocities Vrel are calculated between two particles i and j such that Sti ≫Stj and Stj ≪ 1, the data matches the analytical model of Ormel and Cuzzi. However, if Vrel corresponds to two particles with the same St, only the data for the more loosely coupled solids (i.e. those with large St) follow the model. The discrepancy at the low- St end can be attributed to: (i) the numerical disc model's coarse resolution, which is unable to probe smaller turbulent eddies and, therefore, the dominant contribution to the particle relative velocities is given by the interpolation of the gas velocity inside the grid cells; (ii) the sparse particle sampling, which prevents the measurement of relative velocities between two particles in the same place at the same time. The distribution of turbulence-induced relative speeds can have a wide spread of values, which may lead to particle shattering, subject to the turbulent gas velocity. Codes such as the one used in this work, in general, underestimate relative velocities in turbulence for particles with because they lack energy on short time-scales (relative to a Kolmogorov spectrum). In making comparisons with theory, it is important to use the exact numerical energy spectrum instead of assuming a Kolmogorov inertial range. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source

Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 29 CO chondrites from the Miller Range (MIL) and five chondrites from the Dominion Range (DOM) have been measured. MIL has a relatively strong natural TL signal (19.6 ± 14.7 krad), while some of the DOM samples have a very weak natural TL signal (<1 krad) whereas others resemble the MIL meteorites. I argue that MIL and some of the DOM samples had a normal perihelion (~1.0 AU) and terrestrial age of ~450-700 ka, while some of the DOM samples have a terrestrial age of ~100 ka but a perihelion of ~0.8 AU. The DOM meteorites also show considerable heterogeneity in their induced TL properties, also suggesting that the DOM fragments represent more than one fall. The induced TL data for the MIL samples studied here are consistent with them all being from a single fragmented meteorite. Small (50 mg) chips have TL properties similar to 500 mg chips, so that the smaller chips are representative, although samples taken from original masses less than ~2 g have low natural TL suggesting that they were heated during atmospheric fall. The properties of CO chondrites are reviewed in terms of their petrologic types. Correlations between TL sensitivity, the most quantitative technique for evaluating metamorphic alteration in CO chondrites, and data for olivine composition and heterogeneity, matrix composition, inert gas content, metal composition (Ni, Co, and Cr in the kamacite), bulk carbon, C and O isotopes, graphite ordering, spectral reflectance at 0.8 μm, and textural characteristics of the ameboid olivine and Ca-rich inclusions are examined. The petrographic types appear to be largely metamorphic in origin with perhaps a minor role for metasomatism. Contrary to recent proposals it is here argued that petrologic type definitions should (1) be specific enough to be meaningful, but broad enough to be simple in application and robust to new developments, (2) be descriptive and not interpretative, (3) should not oversimplify and obscure important class-to-class differences, and (4) take account of all the available information, while avoiding reliance on any one technique or single observation whose application is based on interpretation. With these considerations in mind the petrographic type definitions for CO chondrites are restated and the petrologic type of 3.2 assigned to both the MIL and DOM CO chondrites. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ganguly S.,Bay Area Environmental Research Institute | Friedl M.A.,Boston University | Tan B.,Earth Resources Technology Inc. | Zhang X.,Earth Resources Technology Inc. | Verma M.,Boston University
Remote Sensing of Environment

Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatio-temporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of variance suggesting that the algorithm is reliable and robust, except in the tropics where some systematic differences are observed. Finally, comparisons with ground data suggest that the algorithm is performing well, but that end of season metrics associated with vegetation senescence and dormancy have higher uncertainties than start of season metrics. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Contreras C.S.,NASA | Contreras C.S.,Bay Area Environmental Research Institute | Salama F.,NASA
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series

The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kahre M.A.,Bay Area Environmental Research Institute | Kahre M.A.,NASA | Haberle R.M.,NASA

Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of the ice emissivity of the seasonal CO2 polar caps in regulating the effects of airborne dust on the martian CO2 cycle. Simulated results show that atmospheric dust suppresses CO2 condensation when the CO2 ice emissivity is high but enhances it when the CO2 ice emissivity is low. This raises the possibility that the reason for the repeatable nature of the CO2 cycle in the presence of a highly variable dust cycle is that the CO2 ice emissivity is " neutral" - the value that leads to no change in CO2 condensation with changing atmospheric dust. For this GCM, the " neutral" emissivity is approximately 0.55, which is low compared to observed cap emissivities. This inconsistency poses a problem for this hypothesis. However, it is clear that the CO2 ice emissivity is a critical physical parameter in determining how atmospheric dust affects the CO2 cycle on Mars. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. Source

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