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Edmunds B.,University of Bonn | Edmunds B.,Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed Management | Sudekum K.-H.,University of Bonn | Spiekers H.,Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed Management | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

As protein evaluation systems are evolving, they are increasing in their sophistication and complexity. In almost all systems an estimate of microbial crude protein (MCP) and ruminally undegraded feed CP (RUP) must be available. A problem lies in the accuracy of these measurements, especially RUP, which is often estimated by the controversial in situ technique. A new in vitro method has been developed which provides a direct estimate of combined MCP and RUP. The modified Hohenheim gas test (modHGT) involves incubation of a feedstuff in rumen fluid. The non-ammonia N content after incubation is used to determine utilisable CP at the duodenum (uCP) which is defined as the sum of MCP and RUP at the duodenum. In our study, 23 forages were examined using the modHGT and shown at three assumed rates of rumen passage (K p: 0.02, 0.04, 0.06/h). Results were regressed against uCP values calculated using the standard procedure in Germany. Calculated uCP correlated with determined uCP at all rates of passage (K p2: P<0.038, r 2=0.19; K p4: P<0.0001, r 2=0.56; K p6: P<0.0001, r 2=0.67). Due to the simplicity of the reference method it is possible that the modHGT provides more accurate results. Although the new method is also simple, it considers interactions between carbohydrate and protein degradation by rumen microbes and uCP is estimated from the fermentation end product, ammonia. Utilisable CP may then be used to calculate metabolisable protein. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Masanetz S.,TU Munich | Wimmer N.,TU Munich | Plitzner C.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Limbeck E.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2010

For some time now prebiotics have been proposed to improve health by stimulation of beneficial bacteria in the intestine of humans and animals. The current study is aiming to show effects of feeding of either 2% inulin or 2% lactulose in milk replacer on performance and intestinal morphology of male Holstein-Friesian calves. After 20 weeks of feeding inulin led to significantly higher daily weight gains than lactulose while control animals ranged between the experimental feedings. Ingestion of milk replacer was reduced in lactulose treated animals. Additionally differences of villus height in jejunum (P = 0.07) and ileum (P = 0.03) could be found with an increase for lactulose treated animals and a decrease for inulin treated animals. In ileum the density of proliferative epithelial cells tended to be lower in inulin treated and higher in lactulose treated animals (P = 0.08). Both inulin and lactulose tended to decrease the quantity of goblet cells in the tips of ileal villi (P = 0.07). Both prebiotics can affect performance and intestinal morphology of calves and may as such affect animal health. But effects differ between substances. © 2010 The Animal Consortium.

Holzel C.S.,TU Munich | Muller C.,Institute for Agroecology Organic Farming and Soil Protection | Harms K.S.,TU Munich | Mikolajewski S.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture LfL | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2012

Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30. mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0. mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, <2.0-26.7. mg lead, <0.01-0.11. mg mercury, 3.1-97.3. mg nickel and 93.0-8239.0. mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against Β-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against Β-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Masanetz S.,TU Munich | Preissinger W.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture LfL | Meyer H.H.D.,TU Munich | Pfaffl M.W.,TU Munich
Animal | Year: 2011

Prebiotics are suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in animal rearing. Fermentable substances such as inulin or lactulose have been proposed to stimulate the immune system and health by modulation of the intestinal flora and its fermentation products. In this study, effects of inulin and lactulose on the intestinal health and hematology of calves have been investigated. Both prebiotics significantly decreased thrombocyte counts in peripheral blood. Only inulin was able to increase hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. Total leukocyte count was decreased by lactulose while both prebiotics tended to lower monocyte proportions. mRNA expression of inflammation-related markers in the intestine was also affected by both prebiotics hinting at a decreased inflammatory status. This may be due to a possible decrease in intestinal pathogen load that remains to be verified. Only mRNA amounts of interleukin 8 were increased by lactulose in mesenteric lymph nodes. In the ileum, expression of a proliferation marker was increased by inulin while an apoptosis-related gene was increased by both prebiotics. The results of this study show a clear effect of prebiotics on certain parameters associated with animal health and performance that remain to be studied in detail in future investigations. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

Lebuhn M.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture LfL | Weiss S.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology | Munk B.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture LfL | Guebitz G.M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Many biotechnological processes such as biogas production or defined biotransformations are carried out by microorganisms or tightly cooperating microbial communities. Process breakdown is the maximum credible accident for the operator. Any time savings that can be provided by suitable early-warning systems and allow for specific countermeasures are of great value. Process disturbance, frequently due to nutritional shortcomings, malfunction or operational deficits, is evidenced conventionally by process chemistry parameters. However, knowledge on systems microbiology and its function has essentially increased in the last two decades, and molecular biology tools, most of which are directed against nucleic acids, have been developed to analyze and diagnose the process. Some of these systems have been shown to indicate changes of the process status considerably earlier than the conventionally applied process chemistry parameters. This is reasonable because the triggering catalyst is determined, activity changes of the microbes that perform the reaction. These molecular biology tools have thus the potential to add to and improve the established process diagnosis system. This chapter is dealing with the actual state of the art of biogas process analysis in practice, and introduces molecular biology tools that have been shown to be of particular value in complementing the current systems of process monitoring and diagnosis, with emphasis on nucleic acid targeted molecular biology systems. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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