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Neufahrn bei Freising, Germany

Gloyna K.,BTL Bio Test Labor GmbH Sagerheide | Thieme T.,BTL Bio Test Labor GmbH Sagerheide | Zellner M.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2011

The EU policies for decreasing reliance on fossil fuels and reducing greenhouse gas emissions present challenging targets for bioenergy production. Field trials in Europe of Miscanthus×giganteus (Poales: Poaceae) over the past 20 years have shown that this plant is suitable for the production of biomass but the economic models promoting its use for this purpose often assume that controlling its pests will cost little or nothing. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether this plant is suitable for the development of larvae of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), which is an important pest of maize. Larvae of WCR, originating from a Central and South Eastern European population, can develop on Miscanthus. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH. Source


Denschlag C.,TU Munich | Rieder J.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture | Vogel R.F.,TU Munich | Niessen L.,TU Munich
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivaneol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and T2-Toxin are produced by a variety of Fusarium spp. on cereals in the field and may be ingested by consumption of commodities and products made thereof. The toxins inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and may thus impair human and animal health. Aimed at rapid and sensitive detection of the most important trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. in a single analysis, a real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was set up. Two sets of LAMP primers were designed independently to amplify a partial sequence of the tri6 gene in Fusarium (F.) graminearum and of the tri5 gene in Fusarium sporotrichioides, respectively. Each of the two sets detected a limited number of the established trichothecene producing Fusarium-species. However, combination of the two sets in one duplex assay enabled detection of F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis, F. sporotrichioides, Fusarium langsethiae and Fusarium poae in a group specific manner. No cross reactions were detected with purified DNA from 127 other fungal species or with cereal DNA. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, 100 wheat samples collected from all over the German state of Bavaria were analyzed for the trichothecene mycotoxin DON by HPLC and for the presence of trichothecene producers by the new real-time duplex LAMP assay in parallel analyses. The LAMP assay showed positive results for all samples with a DON concentration exceeding 163. ppb. The major advantage of the duplex LAMP assay is that the presence of six of the major trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. can be detected in a rapid and user-friendly manner with only one single assay. To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of a multiplex LAMP assay for fungal organisms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fouda S.,TU Munich | Von Tucher S.,TU Munich | Lichti F.,TU Munich | Lichti F.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture | Schmidhalter U.,TU Munich
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2013

Biogas plants in Germany are producing an increasing amount of biogas residues to be recycled via agricultural crop production. To test whether the wide range of various substrates used in the anaerobic digestion can affect the chemical composition and nutrient availability, seven biogas residues derived from different substrates were investigated with respect to their N supply to ryegrass. Both the short-term and the long-term N availability were studied in a 309-d pot experiment lasting for five successive growth cycles each starting with a fertilizer application. The organic fertilizers were applied based on an equal amount of ammonium-N (300 mg N per pot) and compared to mineral N from ammonium nitrate of equal dosage. Biogas residues varied greatly in their chemical composition (ammonium-N 0.20% to 0.51%, Ntotal 0.36% to 0.75%, and Corg 1.85% to 4.75% in fresh matter). After the first growth cycle, the N availability of the biogas residues applied based on ammonium-N was at least equal to that from ammonium nitrate. Differences in N offtake after one fertilizer application were negatively correlated to the Corg : Norg ratio of the organic fertilizers. After five successive fertilizer applications, the N utilization of most of the organic fertilizers was increased compared to that of the mineral fertilizer. It is concluded that biogas residues provide plant-available N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that the accumulation of organic N in soil through repeated application of biogas residues contributes to N release. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Piepho H.-P.,University of Hohenheim | Eckl T.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2014

Field trials with perennial crops give rise to repeated measurements taken on the same plot on several occasions. It is important to account for serial correlation among repeated measurements in such trials. This study illustrates the use of mixed models for this purpose. We consider the analysis of trials conducted at several locations and the combination of trials with different starting years. A key issue in the analysis is the distinction between effects of calendar years, which are associated with external environmental variation, and harvest years, which represent internal yield formation processes of the perennial crop. Two methods of two-stage analysis are compared with single-stage analysis. It is shown that results of two-stage analysis are very similar to those of single-stage analysis, if serial correlation is properly taken into account. Program code for the MIXED procedure of the SAS system is given in an Appendix S1 for all considered cases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Eckl T.,Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture | Piepho H.-P.,University of Hohenheim
Crop Science | Year: 2015

Field trials with perennial grasses may often be conducted at several locations with different starting years. A key issue in the analysis of such trials is the distinction between effects of calendar years, which are associated with external environmental variation, and harvest years, which represent internal yield formation processes of the perennial crop. Furthermore, analysis of field trials with perennial grasses needs to account for serial correlation of observations on the same plot from consecutive harvest years. Such analyses are conveniently implemented using mixed models. Here, we consider series of trials when the target region is subdivided into several zones. We show how cultivar yield means per zone can be estimated borrowing strength across zones. The proposed mixed models are illustrated using simulated data generated by employing variance component estimates from real experiments. It is shown in simulations that best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) can provide more precise zone-specific mean estimates than alternative methods. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

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