Pretzsch H.,TU Munich |
Biber P.,TU Munich |
Schutze G.,TU Munich |
Uhl E.,TU Munich |
And 2 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014
Forest ecosystems have been exposed to climate change for more than 100 years, whereas the consequences on forest growth remain elusive. Based on the oldest existing experimental forest plots in Central Europe, we show that, currently, the dominant tree species Norway spruce and European beech exhibit significantly faster tree growth (+32 to 77%), stand volume growth (+10 to 30%) and standing stock accumulation (+6 to 7%) than in 1960. Stands still follow similar general allometric rules, but proceed more rapidly through usual trajectories. As forest stands develop faster, tree numbers are currently 17-20% lower than in past same-aged stands. Self-thinning lines remain constant, while growth rates increase indicating the stock of resources have not changed, while growth velocity and turnover have altered. Statistical analyses of the experimental plots, and application of an ecophysiological model, suggest that mainly the rise in temperature and extended growing seasons contribute to increased growth acceleration, particularly on fertile sites. ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Reger B.,Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences |
Kolling C.,Bavarian State Institute of Forestry |
Ewald J.,Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences
Journal of Vegetation Science | Year: 2011
Question: Which thermal climate model performs best in predicting the combined effects of temperature and radiation on forest vegetation in the Bavarian Alps? Location: Bavarian Alps, Germany. Methods: In order to find the best model for effective thermal climate for the Bavarian Alps, we analysed models using the following predictors derived from climate data and/or a digital elevation model: (a) temperature variables only, (b) temperature plus slope aspect and inclination, and (c) temperature plus potential global solar radiation. Models were tested by linear regression against four response variables based on average Ellenberg indicator values for temperature (cover weighted/unweighted, with/without bryophytes), which were computed for 2280 georeferenced relevés from the vegetation database BERGWALD. We optimized (b) by empirically searching for thermally most favourable slope aspect and inclination. Results: Closest model fit was achieved for unweighted temperature values based on vascular plants without bryophytes. Model fit (adj. R 2) increased from using temperature alone to temperature-radiation, to temperature-aspect-inclination as predictors. The best spatially explicit model for predicting temperature values (adj. R 2=0.57) was based on the variable combination mean temperature in the growing season (May to September), slope aspect (optimal aspect 195°) and inclination (optimal slope 30°). Conclusion: Combining mean temperatures and relief variables in GIS allows creation of predictive maps of mountain forest response to thermal climate. Applied to climate change scenarios, our model can forecast potential vegetation distribution in the future. The superiority of simple empirical relief factors over a widely used model of potential radiation casts doubt on the meaningfulness of the latter for vegetation studies. © 2011 International Association for Vegetation Science.
Wolf C.,TU Munich |
Klein D.,Bavarian State Institute of Forestry |
Weber-Blaschke G.,TU Munich |
Richter K.,TU Munich
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2015
Environmental impacts of the provision of wood energy have been analyzed through life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques for many years. Systems for the generation of heat, power, and combined heat and power (CHP) differ, and methodological choices for LCA can vary greatly, leading to inconsistent findings. We analyzed factors that promote these findings by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing LCA studies for wood energy services. The systematic review investigated crucial methodological and systemic factors, such as system boundaries, allocation, transportation, and technologies, for transformation and conversion of North American and European LCA studies. Meta-Analysis was performed on published results in the impact category global warming (GW). A total of 30 studies with 97 systems were incorporated. The studies exhibit great differences in their systemic and methodological choices, as well as their functional units, technologies, and resulting outcomes. A total of 44 systems for the generation of power, with a median impact on GW of 0.169 kilograms (kg) of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) per kilowatt-hour (kWhel), were identified. Results for the biomass fraction only show a median impact on GW of 0.098 kg CO2-eq * kWhel-1. A total of 31 systems producing heat exhibited a median impact on GW of 0.040 kg CO2-eq * kWhth-1. With a median impact on GW of 0.066 kg CO2-eq * kWhel+th-1, CHP systems show the greatest variability among all analyzed wood energy services. To facilitate comparisons, we propose a methodological approach for the description of system boundaries, the basis for calculations, and reporting of findings. © 2015 by Yale University.
Fischer A.,TU Munich |
Blaschke M.,Bavarian State Institute of Forestry |
Bassler C.,Bavarian Forest National Park
Waldokologie Online | Year: 2011
Mountains, with their isolated position and altitudinal belts, are hotspots of biodiversity. Their flora and fauna have been observed worldwide since the days of Alexander von Humboldt, which has led to basic knowledge and understanding of species composition and the most important driving forces of ecosystem differentiation in such altitudinal gradients. Systematically designed analyses of changes in species composition with increasing elevation have been increasingly implemented since the 1990s. Since global climate change is one of the most important problems facing the world this century, a focus on such ecosystem studies is urgently needed. To identify the main future needs of such research we analyze the studies dealing with species changes of diverse taxonomical groups along altitudinal gradients (0 to 6,400 m a.s. l.) on all continents, published during the past one to two decades. From our study we can conclude that although mountains are powerful for climate change research most studies have to face the challenge of separating confounding effects driving species assemblages along altitudinal gradients. Our study therefore supports the view of the need of a global altitudinal concept including that (1) not only one or a few taxonomical groups should be analyzed, but rather different taxonomical groups covering all ecosystem functions simultaneously; (2) relevant site conditions should be registered to reveal direct environmental variables responsible for species distribution patterns and to resolve inconsistent effects along the altitudinal gradients; (3) transect design is appropriate for analyzing ecosystem changes in site gradients and over time; (4) both the study design and the individual methods should be standardized to compare the data collected worldwide; and (5) a long-term perspective is important to quantify the degree and direction of species changes and to validate species distribution models. (6) Finally we suggest to develop experimental altitudinal approaches to overcome the addressed problems of biodiversity surveys.
Schumacher J.,Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests |
Schumacher J.,Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests |
Kehr R.,University of Science and Arts of Iran |
Leonhard S.,Bavarian State Institute of Forestry
Forest Pathology | Year: 2010
Ash dieback is an emerging disease of Fraxinus excelsior in Germany. To date, economical damage is significant in nurseries, which also contribute towards spread of the disease, but damage to forests is increasing. The study presents the results of mycological and histological investigations on three hundred 3-year-old nursery ash saplings. The infection rate by the causative pathogen was determined for bark, outer and inner xylem, the pith and also separately for the above-ground portion and root system of the plants. The invasion and colonization strategy of the fungus in the woody stem was examined. In addition, the presence of soil-borne Oomycetes as possible primary or accompanying causal organisms was investigated. The results verify the dominant role of Chalara fraxinea as a causal agent of ash dieback and rule out the role of Oomycetes in the disease process. We conclude that C. fraxinea is not primarily endophytic in nature and spreads very effectively in the central stem tissues, which enables colonization of the woody stem in all three dimensions. Infections arising in the upper part of plants can thus spread extensively to lower parts. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.