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Auras M.,Institute for Stone Conservation e.V. | Beer S.,Bavarian State Conservation Office | Bundschuh P.,Institute for Stone Conservation e.V. | Eichhorn J.,University of Mainz | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

Besides the enormous improvement of air quality in Germany due to the reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions in the last decades, high immissions of nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter are frequently observed at traffic-rich urban sites. The changed chemical composition of air pollution requires a new investigation of its impact on historic buildings constructed of natural stone. In a pilot study a multi-disciplinary approach was chosen to obtain information on the actual pollution situation of historic buildings and monuments at traffic hotspots in Germany. The study concentrated on the two German cities of Munich and Mainz of different size, traffic volume and stone inventory. Dose-response functions were calculated to demonstrate the change of impact of different pollutants over the last three decades, and for comparison of traffic hotspots and housing areas of both cities. Numeric modelling on a city-scale was used to identify the historic buildings and monuments affected by elevated traffic immissions. Because a relevant part of these pollutants is dominated by short-range transport, the differences of wind speed and deposition rates were calculated using a street-scale 3D flow and dispersion model regarding traffic volume, wind regime and adjacent buildings. Finally, particulate matter was sampled at different positions of two buildings heavily exposed to traffic emissions. Individual particles were investigated by environmental scanning electron microscopy. After classification of the particles into different chemical groups, the fraction of traffic-induced particulate matter was quantified. Summarizing the results, it must be stated that soiling by traffic-related particulate matter, deposition of nitrates deriving from exhaust emission and other diffusely emitted components bear a severe damage potential for natural building stone at least locally at traffic-rich urban sites. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Leitholdt E.,Bavarian State Conservation Office | Zielhofer C.,Bavarian State Conservation Office | Berg-Hobohm S.,Bavarian State Conservation Office | Schnabl K.,University of Osnabrück | And 5 more authors.
Geoarchaeology | Year: 2012

The Central European watershed passes through the southern Franconian Jura in Bavaria, Germany. This principal watershed divides the Rhine/Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the early Middle Ages, when ships were an important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to connect these catchments by the construction of a canal known as the Fossa Carolina. In this paper, we present for the first time 14C data from the Fossa Carolina fill and document a high-resolution stratigraphic record of the Carolingian and post-Carolingian trench infilling. Our results provide clear evidence for peat layers in different levels of the trench infill, suggesting a chain of ponds. However, the majority of these peat layers yield mid-Medieval and younger ages. The period of major peat growth was during the Medieval climatic optimum. Therefore, our preliminary results do not prove the use of the trench during Carolingian times. However, first results from the reconstruction of the Carolingian trench bottom support the hypothesis that the Fossa was primarily planned as a navigable chain of ponds and not as a continuous canal. In the eastern part of the trench, a dam is located that was postulated in former studies to be part of a barrage for supplying the Carolingian canal with water. New 14C data indicate much younger ages and do not support the Carolingian barrage concept. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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