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Spangenberg A.,Institute for Soil Science and Forest Nutrition | Spangenberg A.,Bavarian Research Alliance | Nagarajarao Y.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Hinz C.,University of Western Australia
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2011

Ten undisturbed soil monoliths were collected and irrigated with bromide tracer (KBr) to investigate tracer transport under different initial conditions. Some columns were left at their natural humidity and some were oven-dried. A fixed amount of tracer was applied to the humus layer, creating three experimental variants: application of tracer of low concentration to (i) humid and (ii) dry columns and of ten times higher concentration to (iii) dry columns. Breakthrough curves (BTC) indicate different pore water velocities as well as dispersion coefficients. The recovery rate of the last experiment (dried soil and high tracer concentration) is lowest (mean: 57%). At the peak of the breakthrough merely 1.6% of the original tracer concentradon reached the bottom of the columns. Breakthrough curves of dried columns show generally steeper peaks and longer tailing. Data was fitted using an analytical solution of the convection dispersion equation (CDE). Different approaches were tested. A bimodal estimation resulted in best fit i.e. optimal results. It supports the idea of two overlaying transport phenomena, a fast one through macropores and a slow one through micropores. Dispersion and dispersivity values of the slow breakthroughs are generally higher than those of the fast. Slow breakthroughs show higher heterogeneity of flow paths. Dispersion values of both breakthroughs with high concentration on dried columns (type 3) showed the same level, thus similar flow paths. © by PSP.

Weidenhammer W.,TU Munich | Lewith G.,University of Southampton | Falkenberg T.,Karolinska Institutet | Fonnebo V.,University of Tromso | And 6 more authors.
Forschende Komplementarmedizin | Year: 2011

Background: The status of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) within the EU needs clarification. The definition and terminology of CAM is heterogeneous. The therapies, legal status, regulations and approaches used vary from country to country but there is widespread use by EU citizens. A coordination project funded by the EU has been launched to improve the knowledge about CAM in Europe. Objectives and Methods: The project aims to evaluate the conditions surrounding CAM use and provision in Europe and to develop a roadmap for European CAM research. Specific objectives are to establish an EU network involving centres of research excellence for collaborative projects, to develop consensus-based terminology to describe CAM interventions, to create a knowledge base that facilitates the understanding of patient demand for CAM and its prevalence, to review the current legal status and policies governing CAM provision, and to explore the needs and attitudes of EU citizens with respect to CAM. Based on this information a roadmap will be created that will enable sustainable and prioritised future European research in CAM. CAMbrella encompasses 16 academic research groups from 12 European countries and will run for 36 months starting from January 2010. The project will be delivered in 9 work packages coordinated by a Management Board and directed by a Scientific Steering Committee with support of an Advisory Board. Output: The outcomes generated will be disseminated through the project's website, peer review open access publications and a final conference, with emphasis on current and future EU policies, addressing different target audiences. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Parlar H.,Bavarian Research Alliance | Ammerl T.,Bavarian Research Alliance | Baumhoefener F.,Bavarian Research Alliance
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2010

The European Union, together with the European Research Area (ERA), have fashioned a concept for developing the region into the worldwide leading arena for research and innovation. The core organisational tools here are the Research Framework Programmes. Under the auspices of the current 7 th Research Framework Programme (2007 2013), the essential topics and guidelines for a European research promotional policy are defined, which are publicly announced through regularly scheduled calls for proposals. Respective involvement is open to institutions from the European Member States, candidate countries to the European Union, Associated States and international partner countries. As essential actors within the international, inter-sector and inter-disciplinary consortia, primarily universities, research facilities, SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) as well as participants from the public administrative arena are slated to appear. Despite a plethora of pre-existing institutions that are active in a consultancy capacity for promotion of European research, there often exists, for actors from the scientific and/or commercial sectors, a huge lack of clear understanding regarding the European programmes, as well as concrete support for access to them. In the form of the Bavarian Research Alliance GmbH, there now exists a new initiative for providing Bavarian actors from the scientific and commercial sectors with an opportunity for international participation, and for offering them support during the application process of submitted proposals. The following article introduces the offerings and procedural steps of the Bavarian Research Alliance as a central contribution to the internationalisation of research and innovation. © by PSP.

Ammerl T.,Bavarian Research Alliance | Reiter A.,Bavarian Research Alliance | Blume A.,Bavarian Research Alliance | Baumann C.,Bavarian Research Alliance
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2012

The Mediterranean and the MENA (Middle East and Northern Africa) region are threatened by several climate change impacts with a different need to adapt their water management. Under these environmental circumstances and societal challenges, there is a huge demand for international cooperation in research and development on waterrelated issues. Special emphasis of this paper is given to the political frame of the European Commission, the relevant European policies and directives on water research as well as the different research funding schemes of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) with depictive examples of actual running water projects. Also an outlook on the water-related challenges of the new European framework programme Horizon2020 is provided. Furthermore, the article focuses on the service and support portfolio by the Bavarian Research Alliance (BayFOR, Unit Environment & Energy) for environmental and energy-driven European proposals. At the end, the role of science-policy interfacing is highlighted, and selected water-stakeholders in the Mediterranean and MENA are presented.

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