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Mala J.,Vyzkumny ustav lesniho | Machova P.,Vyzkumny ustav lesniho | Cvrckova H.,Vyzkumny ustav lesniho | Konnert M.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP
Zpravy Lesnickeho Vyzkumu | Year: 2013

A certain proof of origin is important for tracing back forest reproductive material. The Czech Republic as a member state of the European Union and on the base of international legislation (Council Directive 1999/105/EC on the marketing of forest reproductive material on the market) has the obligation to create a functioning control system for determination of forest reproductive material. Its aim is to ensure clear identification of reproductive material from the acquisition to delivery to the consumer. The existing legal regulations on forest reproductive material in the Czech Republic provide only the inspection of the master certificates and delivery papers as a control measure. At present, the insufficiency of the current control system consists in the impossibility to prove any infringement of precepts by an objective method that would allow verification of the real origin of a selected sample of forest reproductive material. Objective methods for independent verification of origin of the plant material based on molecular methods, however, are already used, including the first attempts of their utilizing in practice. A certification system called ZüF ("Zertifizierungsring für überprüfbare Forstliche Herkunft Süddeutschland e.V.") was operationally established in Germany in 2002. Source


Winter M.-B.,University of Gottingen | Winter M.-B.,Forest Research Institute of Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Baier R.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Ammer C.,University of Gottingen
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

Mountain forests provide many important ecosystem services including protection against avalanche and rock fall. These services often depend on a continuity of forest cover and therefore on ecological stability—resistance and resilience to disturbance. Natural regeneration following large-scale disturbance is an important component of forest resilience but in the mountain forests of the Alps is not well understood. This restricts management decision making, particularly in the face of an increased threat to the currently dominant Norway spruce from the bark beetle (Ips typographus). In light of this, we analyzed bark beetle infestation patterns, forest structure, selected tree regeneration characteristics and species composition on 96 study plots on a chronosequence of bark beetle-induced natural forest succession in unmanaged mountain forest ecosystems in southeastern Germany. The most advanced plots were twenty years on from the bark beetle-induced dieback of mature Norway spruce, and the majority were already quite densely stocked. The regeneration was clustered and was dominated by sycamore maple and Norway spruce. Most notably, the proportion of advance regeneration was negligible with the vast majority of the seedlings having germinated after the disturbance event. The findings suggest that these forests are naturally resilient in terms of regeneration if high browsing intensities do not prohibit the establishment of new seedlings. The bark beetle outbreaks appear to have generated an acceleration of development away from human influenced pure Norway spruce forests toward a more natural species composition. Nevertheless, Norway spruce will remain the dominant species for at least the next generation. These findings are important for managers intending to uphold protective forest functions. The integration of naturally evolving gaps as elements which diversify environmental conditions on the forest stand level as well as on the landscape scale is recommended for close-to-nature forest management. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Fussi B.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Bonello J.,Ministry for Gozo | Calleja E.,University of Warwick | Heinze B.,Federal Research Center for Forests
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

The nativity of Populus alba in the Mediterranean has only been confirmed in the last decade, following the discovery of 8,000-year-old leaf imprints in Southern France. Recent evidence has even emerged from molecular studies suggesting that the species is native to some of the islands, and these populations may be relicts of a native flora that arrived there much earlier than previously thought. In view of this, samples obtained from the Central Mediterranean archipelago of Malta and other neighbouring regions were analysed to determine the native status of the Maltese populations and possibly trace their origins. All 38 samples were investigated in order to assess the genetic diversity and origin of Maltese trees. Nuclear microsatellite analysis revealed that all 28 trees sampled from the two islands of Malta belonged to one clone. Chloroplast data suggested relatedness of the Maltese clone to Italian P. alba samples. However, nuclear data suggested additional admixture through pollen from North Africa. Existing archival and palaeontological records were also examined for any supporting evidence. On considering the latter records in combination with molecular evidence, we arrived to the conclusion that arrival of this clone in Malta through human introduction in the sixteenth century is the most likely explanation, since alternative scenarios like autovegetative propagation or arrival by seed seem highly unlikely. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Bilela S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Dounavi A.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wurttemberg | Fussi B.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Konnert M.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | And 5 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Due to its drought sensitivity, the performance and competitiveness of beech as a favoured species of forest management in Central Europe is likely to be negatively affected by the prognosticated climate change, leading to major impacts on the vulnerability of managed forest ecosystems. We studied the genetic differentiation between two populations from a relatively cold and wet northeast (representing the current climate of the majority of beech forests in Central Europe) and a relatively warm and dry southwest facing slope (representing the future climate of an increasing area covered by beech forests in Central Europe) at the same forest site to investigate the adaptation processes in these two populations under different microclimatic conditions. For this purpose, two different techniques, i.e., nuclear microsatellites (neutral) and isozyme markers (adaptive), were applied to adult trees and natural regeneration at both slopes. Although microsatellites are considered to be neutral markers, they have been shown in several studies to give signals of selectively-driven changes. In our study, two of the five microsatellites behaved as " outlier loci" , exhibiting directional selection. Our results show independent of the technique applied that natural regeneration of the southwest slope and the natural regeneration and adult trees of the northeast slope were genetically closer than the adult trees from the southwest slope. Thus, we conclude that natural selection and potential adaptation account for genetic changes and different genetic structures among the two adult populations in this case study. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Gherghel F.,University of Marburg | Fussi B.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Donges K.,University of Marburg | Haustein M.,University of Marburg | And 8 more authors.
Forest Pathology | Year: 2014

Ash dieback, caused by the pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, is an emerging lethal disease of Fraxinus excelsior in large parts of Europe. To develop a method for the early detection of H. pseudoalbidus, we designed primers for 46 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) of the pathogen. Seven pairs of primers (SSR38, SSR58, SSR114, SSR198, SSR206, SSR211 and SSR212) were found to bind only to the genome of H. pseudoalbidus, but not to the genome of H. albidus or to 52 different fungal endophytes isolated from F. excelsior and F. angustifolia. Using these seven primer pairs, H. pseudoalbidus was identified in fruiting bodies and different types of ash tissues including dead leaves, dead petioles and discoloured or non-discoloured wood. Along one twig, H. pseudoalbidus was detected at different levels of intensity, which depended on the distance from symptomatic tissue. The detection limit was 0.9-1.8 pg of genomic DNA per PCR. Of 50 analysed commercially available seedlings, six were infected with H. pseudoalbidus. Two SSR loci (SSR198 and SSR211) showed fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that the new primers not only provide an easy and inexpensive means of detecting H. pseudoalbidus in ash tissues, but can also provide information on the genetic heterogeneity of the species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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