Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP

Teisendorf, Germany

Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP

Teisendorf, Germany
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Sancho-Knapik D.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Peguero-Pina J.J.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Cremer E.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Camarero J.J.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology | And 3 more authors.
Pirineos | Year: 2014

The genetic structure of ten Abies alba populations at the western rear edge in the Spanish Pyrenees was characterized and compared with two German populations, looking for the role of climatic factors in the fir de?cline. Growth, defoliation, aridity and cumulative summer water deficit summer were also characterized. Spanish populations show a lower genetic diversity and a high genetic differentiation than German ones, mainly established by an East (higher diversity)-West (lower diversity) gradient. The three defoliated populations are the western ones, with higher summer aridity. Contrastingly, the southern population (Guara) shows climatic variables close to western sites but without defoliation and with a higher genetic diversity, indicating a possible adaptation to the sub-Mediter?ranean conditions. Silver fir in the Spanish Pyrenees constitutes a "stable" rear edge because of their isolation, small sized and small genetic diversity. Western Pyrenean sites subjected to dryer conditions and presenting lower genetic diversity are prone to drought-induced mortality in the context of global warming. © 2014 CSIC.

Heinze B.,Austrian Federal Research Center for Forests | Fussi B.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP
Baltic Forestry | Year: 2017

Ash is an important component of forestry in Austria; its loss due to the dieback disease would be a great challenge for many forest owners. We investigated seed material that was harvested in 2001, just prior to the onset of the disease. Seeds from at least ten (allegedly) separate trees per stand were obtained from commercial harvest lots, from six different stands in Austria. The separate sampling from at least ten seed-bearing trees of ash is a legal requirement in Austria. Levels of genetic differentiation on the basis of six microsatellite markers were low, but somewhat higher than in other typical European forest trees. Stands along the Danube river seemed to share more genetic similarity with each other than with two stands in the Alps. In comparison, within the stands, most single tree seed lots were highly differentiated and they mostly fitted to the stands of origin with their genetic patterns. An attempt was made at reconstructing the unknown genotypes of the mother trees of the seeds from the offspring data. This led to the presumable identification of cases where these mother trees shared more alleles than expected, and their seed lots were closer genetically than on average. It also revealed cases where single seeds did not fit into their lot genetically (as defined by Mendelian rules). The data reported here confirm that detailed information on the genetic background of seed can be obtained from such structured samples, supporting law enforcement. It further confirms that harvesting from a minimum of ten trees leads to seed that more comprehensively reflects levels of genetic diversity in the whole stand. The data presented can be used as a baseline for investigating any genetic effects of the progressing disease in the future. © Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.

Fussi B.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Bonello J.,Ministry for Gozo | Calleja E.,University of Warwick | Heinze B.,Federal Research Center for Forests
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

The nativity of Populus alba in the Mediterranean has only been confirmed in the last decade, following the discovery of 8,000-year-old leaf imprints in Southern France. Recent evidence has even emerged from molecular studies suggesting that the species is native to some of the islands, and these populations may be relicts of a native flora that arrived there much earlier than previously thought. In view of this, samples obtained from the Central Mediterranean archipelago of Malta and other neighbouring regions were analysed to determine the native status of the Maltese populations and possibly trace their origins. All 38 samples were investigated in order to assess the genetic diversity and origin of Maltese trees. Nuclear microsatellite analysis revealed that all 28 trees sampled from the two islands of Malta belonged to one clone. Chloroplast data suggested relatedness of the Maltese clone to Italian P. alba samples. However, nuclear data suggested additional admixture through pollen from North Africa. Existing archival and palaeontological records were also examined for any supporting evidence. On considering the latter records in combination with molecular evidence, we arrived to the conclusion that arrival of this clone in Malta through human introduction in the sixteenth century is the most likely explanation, since alternative scenarios like autovegetative propagation or arrival by seed seem highly unlikely. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Bilela S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Dounavi A.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wurttemberg | Fussi B.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Konnert M.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | And 5 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Due to its drought sensitivity, the performance and competitiveness of beech as a favoured species of forest management in Central Europe is likely to be negatively affected by the prognosticated climate change, leading to major impacts on the vulnerability of managed forest ecosystems. We studied the genetic differentiation between two populations from a relatively cold and wet northeast (representing the current climate of the majority of beech forests in Central Europe) and a relatively warm and dry southwest facing slope (representing the future climate of an increasing area covered by beech forests in Central Europe) at the same forest site to investigate the adaptation processes in these two populations under different microclimatic conditions. For this purpose, two different techniques, i.e., nuclear microsatellites (neutral) and isozyme markers (adaptive), were applied to adult trees and natural regeneration at both slopes. Although microsatellites are considered to be neutral markers, they have been shown in several studies to give signals of selectively-driven changes. In our study, two of the five microsatellites behaved as " outlier loci" , exhibiting directional selection. Our results show independent of the technique applied that natural regeneration of the southwest slope and the natural regeneration and adult trees of the northeast slope were genetically closer than the adult trees from the southwest slope. Thus, we conclude that natural selection and potential adaptation account for genetic changes and different genetic structures among the two adult populations in this case study. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gherghel F.,University of Marburg | Fussi B.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Donges K.,University of Marburg | Haustein M.,University of Marburg | And 8 more authors.
Forest Pathology | Year: 2014

Ash dieback, caused by the pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, is an emerging lethal disease of Fraxinus excelsior in large parts of Europe. To develop a method for the early detection of H. pseudoalbidus, we designed primers for 46 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) of the pathogen. Seven pairs of primers (SSR38, SSR58, SSR114, SSR198, SSR206, SSR211 and SSR212) were found to bind only to the genome of H. pseudoalbidus, but not to the genome of H. albidus or to 52 different fungal endophytes isolated from F. excelsior and F. angustifolia. Using these seven primer pairs, H. pseudoalbidus was identified in fruiting bodies and different types of ash tissues including dead leaves, dead petioles and discoloured or non-discoloured wood. Along one twig, H. pseudoalbidus was detected at different levels of intensity, which depended on the distance from symptomatic tissue. The detection limit was 0.9-1.8 pg of genomic DNA per PCR. Of 50 analysed commercially available seedlings, six were infected with H. pseudoalbidus. Two SSR loci (SSR198 and SSR211) showed fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that the new primers not only provide an easy and inexpensive means of detecting H. pseudoalbidus in ash tissues, but can also provide information on the genetic heterogeneity of the species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Mala J.,Vyzkumny ustav lesniho | Machova P.,Vyzkumny ustav lesniho | Cvrckova H.,Vyzkumny ustav lesniho | Konnert M.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP
Zpravy Lesnickeho Vyzkumu | Year: 2013

A certain proof of origin is important for tracing back forest reproductive material. The Czech Republic as a member state of the European Union and on the base of international legislation (Council Directive 1999/105/EC on the marketing of forest reproductive material on the market) has the obligation to create a functioning control system for determination of forest reproductive material. Its aim is to ensure clear identification of reproductive material from the acquisition to delivery to the consumer. The existing legal regulations on forest reproductive material in the Czech Republic provide only the inspection of the master certificates and delivery papers as a control measure. At present, the insufficiency of the current control system consists in the impossibility to prove any infringement of precepts by an objective method that would allow verification of the real origin of a selected sample of forest reproductive material. Objective methods for independent verification of origin of the plant material based on molecular methods, however, are already used, including the first attempts of their utilizing in practice. A certification system called ZüF ("Zertifizierungsring für überprüfbare Forstliche Herkunft Süddeutschland e.V.") was operationally established in Germany in 2002.

Winter M.-B.,University of Gottingen | Winter M.-B.,Forest Research Institute of Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Baier R.,Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting ASP | Ammer C.,University of Gottingen
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

Mountain forests provide many important ecosystem services including protection against avalanche and rock fall. These services often depend on a continuity of forest cover and therefore on ecological stability—resistance and resilience to disturbance. Natural regeneration following large-scale disturbance is an important component of forest resilience but in the mountain forests of the Alps is not well understood. This restricts management decision making, particularly in the face of an increased threat to the currently dominant Norway spruce from the bark beetle (Ips typographus). In light of this, we analyzed bark beetle infestation patterns, forest structure, selected tree regeneration characteristics and species composition on 96 study plots on a chronosequence of bark beetle-induced natural forest succession in unmanaged mountain forest ecosystems in southeastern Germany. The most advanced plots were twenty years on from the bark beetle-induced dieback of mature Norway spruce, and the majority were already quite densely stocked. The regeneration was clustered and was dominated by sycamore maple and Norway spruce. Most notably, the proportion of advance regeneration was negligible with the vast majority of the seedlings having germinated after the disturbance event. The findings suggest that these forests are naturally resilient in terms of regeneration if high browsing intensities do not prohibit the establishment of new seedlings. The bark beetle outbreaks appear to have generated an acceleration of development away from human influenced pure Norway spruce forests toward a more natural species composition. Nevertheless, Norway spruce will remain the dominant species for at least the next generation. These findings are important for managers intending to uphold protective forest functions. The integration of naturally evolving gaps as elements which diversify environmental conditions on the forest stand level as well as on the landscape scale is recommended for close-to-nature forest management. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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