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Armengol-Porta M.,Labor Staber | Tenorio-Abreu A.,Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez | Bandt D.,Institute Oderland | Coleman D.C.,Trinity College Dublin | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance | Year: 2016

Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A collection of 17 clinical and veterinary mecC-positive MRSA isolates was tested to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ceftaroline against recently emerged mecC-MRSA isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ceftaroline for the 17 isolates were determined by broth microdilution using the methodology and interpretive criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Additional susceptibility tests were performed using ceftaroline M.I.C.Evaluator (M.I.C.E.™) strips. All isolates showed susceptibility according to CLSI breakpoints, with MICs of ceftaroline ranging from 0.125 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L. MBCs were identical or up to a twofold dilution step higher. In conclusion, all tested isolates, from various sources and belonging to several clonal complexes (CCs), but predominantly to CC130, were found to be susceptible to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline could thus be an option for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Source

von Krueger X.,Free University of Berlin | Scherpenisse P.,University Utrecht | Roiger S.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Heuwieser W.,Free University of Berlin
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Acute puerperal metritis (APM) is one of the most common diseases during the puerperal period. Systemic administration of ceftiofur for 5 consecutive days has been shown to be effective for treatment of APM. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia of cows with fever postpartum or APM 4 to 6. d after treatment with a single subcutaneous dose of 6.6. mg of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA)/kg of estimated BW at the base of the ear. In the first experiment, samples from CCFA-treated cows with fever postpartum or APM (n = 42) were taken on d 4, 5, or 6 after treatment. Concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives were quantified using an HPLC assay. Concentrations of active ceftiofur metabolite desfuroylceftiofuracetamide (DCA) were greatest at d 4 after treatment with CCFA in all samples, but they were considerably lower than the concentrations of DCA in healthy postpartum cows treated with the same dose of CCFA. The concentrations of DCA in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia were affected by odor of vaginal discharge before treatment with CCFA. Mean concentrations of DCA could be detected above the reported minimal drug concentrations (minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC) required to inhibit relevant pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes in serum on all days and in endometrial tissue and lochia only on d 4 in CCFA-treated cows with fetid vaginal discharge before treatment. In the second experiment, samples from CCFA-treated cows with APM (n = 8) were taken on d 0 (before treatment) and d 4, 5, and 6 after treatment. Mean concentrations of DCA in serum and lochia were similar on d 4 to 6 in both laboratories. Furthermore, determined concentrations of DCA from both laboratories were correlated for serum and lochia. Mean concentrations of DCA could be detected above the reported MIC in serum and lochia only on d 4. Our 2 experiments demonstrated that in postpartum cows with fever postpartum or APM concentrations above the MIC for relevant bacteria (>0.5. μg/mL or >0.5. μg/g) of DCA could be sustained only for 4 (serum: 15/17; endometrial tissue: 2/17; lochia: 1/16) to 5. d (serum: 10/13; endometrial tissue: 1/13; lochia: 2/12) after a single treatment with CCFA only in a certain proportion of cows. Overall, our data provide first pharmacological evidence that a single subcutaneous administration of 6.6. g of CCFA/kg of BW might not be sufficient to efficaciously treat APM in postpartum dairy cows. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Olias P.,Free University of Berlin | Schade B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Mehlhorn H.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Until recently, besnoitiosis has been a neglected disease of domestic animals. Now, a geographic expansion of the causing protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti in livestock has been recognized and the disease in cattle is considered emerging in Europe. Bovine besnoitiosis leads to significant economic losses by a decline in milk production, sterility, transient or permanent infertility of bulls, skin lesions and increase of mortality in affected cattle population. Phylogenetically, the Besnoitia genus is closest related to the well studied and medically important protozoans, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. In contrast, discriminative molecular markers to type and subtype large mammalian Besnoitia species (B. besnoiti, B. caprae, B. tarandi, B. bennetti) on a relevant level of species and strains are lacking. Similarly, these cyst-forming parasites may use two hosts to fulfill their life cycle, but this has not been proven for all large mammalian Besnoitia species yet. Most important though, the final hosts and transmission routes of these Besnoitia species remain mysterious. Here, we review aspects of parasite's pathology, speciation, phylogeny, epidemiology and transmission with a special focus on recent molecular studies of all to date known Besnoitia species. Using an integrated approach, we have tried to highlight some promising directions for future research. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Widmer D.,Zoo Dresden | Ziemssen E.,Zoo Dresden | Schade B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Kappe E.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2016

Nine Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), between 1 and 1.5 years old and kept at Zoo Dresden, developed local and systemic infections with various opportunistic pathogens within a period of 4 months. Affected birds died peracutely without preceding symptoms or showed various clinical signs, including separation from conspecifics, reduced food intake, lethargy, dyspnea, swelling of the salt glands, and ocular discharge. One bird showed central nervous signs, including seizures. Pathologic examination of deceased birds revealed severe necrotizing inflammation of the mucous membranes and deep structures of the glottis, trachea, nasal sinus, and conchae and granulomatous inflammation of the salt glands. Further findings were airsacculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, and myositis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen in 7 cases. Six penguins died or were euthanatized, whereas 3 penguins that received systemic antibiotic treatment with tobramycin (10 mg/kg IM q24h for 10 days) showed rapid clinical improvement. Insufficient turnover rate of the filtration system, biofilm formation on pipe surfaces, and other factors are assumed to have promoted pathogen buildup in the pool water and subsequent infection. © 2016 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians. Source

Frangoulidis D.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Walter M.C.,Helmholtz Center for Health and Environment | Walter M.C.,TU Munich | Antwerpen M.,University of Federal Defense Munich | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2014

The causative agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, is a query agent occurring naturally all over the world. We studied 104 German Coxiella burnetii strains/DNA samples obtained between 1969 and 2011 using a 14 microsatellite marker Multiple-. locus variable-. number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) technique. We were able to divide our collection into 32 different genotypes clustered into four major groups (A-D). Two of these (A and C) formed predominant clonal complexes that covered 97% of all studied samples. Group C consisted exclusively of cattle-associated isolates/DNA specimens, while group A comprised all other affected species including all sheep-derived strains/DNA samples. Within this second cluster, two major genotypes (A1, A2) were identified. Genotype A2 occurred in strains isolated from ewes in northern and central Germany, whereas genotype A1 was found in most areas of Germany. MLVA analysis of C. burnetii strains from neighbouring countries revealed a close relationship to German strains. We thus hypothesize that there is a western and central European cluster of C. burnetii. We identified predominant genotypes related to relevant host species and geographic regions which is in line with findings of the Dutch Q fever outbreak (2007-2010). Furthermore three of our analyzed German strains are closely related to the Dutch outbreak clone. These findings support the theory of predominant genotypes in the context of regional outbreaks. Our results show that a combination of 8 MLVA markers provides the highest discriminatory power for attributing C. burnetii isolates to genotypes. For future epidemiological studies we propose the use of three MLVA markers for easy and rapid classification of C. burnetii into 4 main clusters. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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