Bavarian Animal Health Service

Poing, Germany

Bavarian Animal Health Service

Poing, Germany
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Bottcher J.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Vossen A.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Janowetz B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Alex M.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2011

Serological diagnosis of acute and chronic Q fever in humans relies on detection of antibodies to phase I (PhI) and II (PhII) antigens of Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Although phase-specific antigens are available, they are not yet used in ruminants as they are in humans. This study focuses on phase-specific serology as a tool for analysis of the dynamics of infection in cattle. As a prerequisite, sero-prevalence in Bavarian cattle (1) and sero-prevalences for age-groups (2) were determined by ELISA (CHEKIT Q-Fever; mix of PhI/PhII-antigen). Subsequently, phase-specific antigens were coated onto ELISA plates individually and tests were simultaneously applied in an endemically infected herd with about 90 dairy cows and 250 calves/heifers in April 2005, March 2006 and retrospectively in May and October 2004. From April 2005 onward, placentas were analysed for C. burnetii by PCR (3).(1) Sero- and herd prevalences based on 21,051 sera from 603 Bavarian dairy farms collected in 2003 were 14.8%±0.48% and 72.3%±3.6%, respectively. (2) Analysis of 3965 animals from 105 farms for which age was reported revealed a base level of sero-prevalence of less than 5% in 1-2years old animals, it increased to 15% in 2-3years old and reached a plateau (25-30%) in cows four years and older. (3) In May 2004 and April 2005 a peak of PhI-/PhII+-prevalence in primiparous cows (2.0-3.5years) was observed; but not in October 2004 and March 2006. The PhI-/PhII+-pattern in primiparous cows changed to negative (one-third), PhI+/PhII+ (1/3) or persisted (1/3). In contrast, sero-conversion was rare in multiparous cows (>3.5years). If the PhI-/PhII+ pattern was detected, it was due to an infection in preceding years. This pattern persisted (2/3) or changed to negative (1/3); a change to PhI+/PhII+ did not occur. PhI-/PhII+ in heifers (1-2 years) always changed to negative. Detection of PhII-antibodies was significantly associated with PCR-positive placentas. Remarkably, 45% of sera with the PhI-/PhII+ pattern were negative for the CHEKIT Q-Fever ELISA, thus this test missed an important group of infected animals. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Schade B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Schmitt F.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Bohm B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Alex M.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | And 6 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2013

Avian adenovirus infections cause important disease complexes in chickens, but many of the viruses also infect chickens without resulting in overt disease. Previously several outbreaks of gizzard erosions caused by a fowl adenovirus A serotype-1 (FAdV-1) were reported from Japan. Here we report an outbreak of gizzard erosions in 12 broiler flocks in Germany in 2011. Chickens had a reduced daily weight gain and a higher total mortality rate of up to 8%. The birds showed a severe detachment of the koilin layer and ulcerative to necrotizing lesions of the underlying mucosa. Histopathologically, necrotizing ventriculitis with basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry, egg culture, and electron microscopic examination revealed adenovirus-like particles in the samples. No concurrent infectious agent could be identified. The virus was genotyped as FAdV-1 by PCR and subsequent sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the hexon loop L1 gene yielded 100% sequence identity to the chicken embryo lethal orphan strain. These findings suggest that outbreaks of adenoviral gizzard erosion can lead to significant economic losses in Germany and may be caused by an unusual virulent FAdV-1 strain. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Frangoulidis D.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Walter M.C.,Helmholtz Center for Health and Environment | Walter M.C.,TU Munich | Antwerpen M.,University of Federal Defense Munich | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2014

The causative agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, is a query agent occurring naturally all over the world. We studied 104 German Coxiella burnetii strains/DNA samples obtained between 1969 and 2011 using a 14 microsatellite marker Multiple-. locus variable-. number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) technique. We were able to divide our collection into 32 different genotypes clustered into four major groups (A-D). Two of these (A and C) formed predominant clonal complexes that covered 97% of all studied samples. Group C consisted exclusively of cattle-associated isolates/DNA specimens, while group A comprised all other affected species including all sheep-derived strains/DNA samples. Within this second cluster, two major genotypes (A1, A2) were identified. Genotype A2 occurred in strains isolated from ewes in northern and central Germany, whereas genotype A1 was found in most areas of Germany. MLVA analysis of C. burnetii strains from neighbouring countries revealed a close relationship to German strains. We thus hypothesize that there is a western and central European cluster of C. burnetii. We identified predominant genotypes related to relevant host species and geographic regions which is in line with findings of the Dutch Q fever outbreak (2007-2010). Furthermore three of our analyzed German strains are closely related to the Dutch outbreak clone. These findings support the theory of predominant genotypes in the context of regional outbreaks. Our results show that a combination of 8 MLVA markers provides the highest discriminatory power for attributing C. burnetii isolates to genotypes. For future epidemiological studies we propose the use of three MLVA markers for easy and rapid classification of C. burnetii into 4 main clusters. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Olias P.,Free University of Berlin | Schade B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Mehlhorn H.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Until recently, besnoitiosis has been a neglected disease of domestic animals. Now, a geographic expansion of the causing protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti in livestock has been recognized and the disease in cattle is considered emerging in Europe. Bovine besnoitiosis leads to significant economic losses by a decline in milk production, sterility, transient or permanent infertility of bulls, skin lesions and increase of mortality in affected cattle population. Phylogenetically, the Besnoitia genus is closest related to the well studied and medically important protozoans, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. In contrast, discriminative molecular markers to type and subtype large mammalian Besnoitia species (B. besnoiti, B. caprae, B. tarandi, B. bennetti) on a relevant level of species and strains are lacking. Similarly, these cyst-forming parasites may use two hosts to fulfill their life cycle, but this has not been proven for all large mammalian Besnoitia species yet. Most important though, the final hosts and transmission routes of these Besnoitia species remain mysterious. Here, we review aspects of parasite's pathology, speciation, phylogeny, epidemiology and transmission with a special focus on recent molecular studies of all to date known Besnoitia species. Using an integrated approach, we have tried to highlight some promising directions for future research. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Schmitt F.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Schade B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Bohm B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Shimoji Y.,Japanese National Institute of Animal Health | Pfahler C.,Bavarian Animal Health Service
Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2014

Erysipelas was diagnosed in a free-range laying flock with a high mortality of up to 7% per day and a severe decrease in egg production to 45%. The disease had a short course and unusual clinical features for erysipelas, including swollen, lacrimating and encrusted eyes. Bacteriologically, trapped poultry red mites and affected animals were culture-positive for Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Isolates from layers and mites were both serotype 1b. Histopathology revealed disseminated intravasal coagulopathy in conjunctival small vessels as the cause of the oedema of the eye adnexes. After treatment with penicillin, mortality and egg production returned to normal levels. Although erysipelas in laying hens is rarely reported, it can develop as an emerging disease in alternative rearing systems and should always be considered if mortality increases in an older flock, especially with a high infestation of poultry red mites. © 2014 Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.

von Krueger X.,Free University of Berlin | Scherpenisse P.,University Utrecht | Roiger S.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Heuwieser W.,Free University of Berlin
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Acute puerperal metritis (APM) is one of the most common diseases during the puerperal period. Systemic administration of ceftiofur for 5 consecutive days has been shown to be effective for treatment of APM. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia of cows with fever postpartum or APM 4 to 6. d after treatment with a single subcutaneous dose of 6.6. mg of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA)/kg of estimated BW at the base of the ear. In the first experiment, samples from CCFA-treated cows with fever postpartum or APM (n = 42) were taken on d 4, 5, or 6 after treatment. Concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives were quantified using an HPLC assay. Concentrations of active ceftiofur metabolite desfuroylceftiofuracetamide (DCA) were greatest at d 4 after treatment with CCFA in all samples, but they were considerably lower than the concentrations of DCA in healthy postpartum cows treated with the same dose of CCFA. The concentrations of DCA in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia were affected by odor of vaginal discharge before treatment with CCFA. Mean concentrations of DCA could be detected above the reported minimal drug concentrations (minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC) required to inhibit relevant pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes in serum on all days and in endometrial tissue and lochia only on d 4 in CCFA-treated cows with fetid vaginal discharge before treatment. In the second experiment, samples from CCFA-treated cows with APM (n = 8) were taken on d 0 (before treatment) and d 4, 5, and 6 after treatment. Mean concentrations of DCA in serum and lochia were similar on d 4 to 6 in both laboratories. Furthermore, determined concentrations of DCA from both laboratories were correlated for serum and lochia. Mean concentrations of DCA could be detected above the reported MIC in serum and lochia only on d 4. Our 2 experiments demonstrated that in postpartum cows with fever postpartum or APM concentrations above the MIC for relevant bacteria (>0.5. μg/mL or >0.5. μg/g) of DCA could be sustained only for 4 (serum: 15/17; endometrial tissue: 2/17; lochia: 1/16) to 5. d (serum: 10/13; endometrial tissue: 1/13; lochia: 2/12) after a single treatment with CCFA only in a certain proportion of cows. Overall, our data provide first pharmacological evidence that a single subcutaneous administration of 6.6. g of CCFA/kg of BW might not be sufficient to efficaciously treat APM in postpartum dairy cows. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Widmer D.,Zoo Dresden | Ziemssen E.,Zoo Dresden | Schade B.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | Kappe E.,Bavarian Animal Health Service | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2016

Nine Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), between 1 and 1.5 years old and kept at Zoo Dresden, developed local and systemic infections with various opportunistic pathogens within a period of 4 months. Affected birds died peracutely without preceding symptoms or showed various clinical signs, including separation from conspecifics, reduced food intake, lethargy, dyspnea, swelling of the salt glands, and ocular discharge. One bird showed central nervous signs, including seizures. Pathologic examination of deceased birds revealed severe necrotizing inflammation of the mucous membranes and deep structures of the glottis, trachea, nasal sinus, and conchae and granulomatous inflammation of the salt glands. Further findings were airsacculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, and myositis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen in 7 cases. Six penguins died or were euthanatized, whereas 3 penguins that received systemic antibiotic treatment with tobramycin (10 mg/kg IM q24h for 10 days) showed rapid clinical improvement. Insufficient turnover rate of the filtration system, biofilm formation on pipe surfaces, and other factors are assumed to have promoted pathogen buildup in the pool water and subsequent infection. © 2016 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians.

PubMed | Bavarian Animal Health Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2013

C. burnetii infection might be associated with puerperal shedding; additionally, the chronic shedding of this pathogen in milk has been observed in individual animals. A longitudinal survey was performed in an endemically infected dairy cow herd with 100 cows in order to compare phase-specific milk-serology with pathogen shedding. From March 2010 through December 2011, 870 individual milk samples from 212 cows were analysed using both quantitative (q) PCR and phase-specific antibody-ELISA. The mean milk-shedding/cow was calculated for 137 cows with > or = 3 milk samples per cow. In addition, 110 puerperal swabs were collected after August 2010. The cows yielding three successive qPCR-positive milk samples or > 3 qPCR-positive milk samples, irrespective of the sequence of positive/negative results, were classified as chronic shedders (CS). Milk shedding was observed during the entire study, but a major period of puerperal shedding occurred from February through October 2011; 35/52 swabs tested positive, whereas only 3/58 swabs collected outside this period were positive. The PhI/PhII(+)-pattern in primiparous cows (< 36 months old) was consistent with puerperal shedding in the herd, but not at the individual level. This pattern was observed in older cows, irrespective of the period of puerperal shedding. Four primiparous CS-cows showed low-level mean shedding < 100 C.b./ml milk, and the PhI-titre increased from negative or weakly positive to more than 500 at the end of the first lactation. Puerperal shedding during the second parturition was observed in three of these cows. Six multiparous CS-cows with mean shedding exceeding 100 C.b./ml milk were characterised with stable PhI-titres of > or = 500. The three available puerperal swabs tested negative. Only one multiparous CS-cow showed low-level shedding and a PhI-titre below 500 for the entire study. In conclusion, the PhI-/PhII(+)-pattern in primiparous cows indicated puerperal shedding at the herd level, and a PhI-titre > or = 500 is a suitable screening method for the detection of chronic shedding in milk.

PubMed | Bavarian Animal Health Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2012

A voluntary marker-independent Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) eradication program started in 1986; in 1998 it changed to a compulsory one. Certification of free regions in European member states is based on Article 10 of directive 64/432/EEC. According to this rule Bavaria is listed as free of BoHV1 since October 2011. Surveillance of BoHV1-free dairy cattle farms is currently performed with quarterly bulk-milk testing. Non-negative bulk-milk results must be confirmed by blood tests in cattle older than nine months. An increased regional rate of non-negative bulk-milk samples and the subsequent detection of epidemiologically non-feasible singleton BoHV1-reactors by analysis of blood were observed at the final stage of eradication in southwest Bavaria. Nineteen case farms (734 animals) defined by singleton reactors born at least two years after certification of the farms as BoHV1-free, 23 negative control (NC) farms (NC I: 321 animals) from the same region, 11 NC-farms (NC II: 423 animals) from an already-certified Article 10 region in northeast Bavaria and two BoHV1-infected farms (264 animals) were analysed using BoHV1-, BoHV2- and Feline Herpesvirus 1 (FeHV1)-neutralisation tests (NTs), and three commercially available ELISAs supplied by Idexx Laboratories, B.V., The Netherlands: the CHEKIT Trachitest 2nd Gen. test for milk or serum (Trachitest), Herdchek gB- (gB-ELISA) and Herdchek gE-ELISA (gE-ELISA). Significantly increased levels of BoHV2 antibodies were observed on case farms compared to NC I or II farms. Additionally, reactivity by gB-ELISA and the Trachitest was significantly increased for animals with BoHV2 neutralising antibodies. Singleton BoHV1-reactors tested negative by gE-ELISA even if an elevated cut-off of 0.950.05 was applied. At this cut-off, the gE-ELISA was as sensitive and specific as the gB-ELISA. Comparative titration of milk samples from seropositive animals from a BoHV1-infected dairy cattle farm and from singleton BoHV1-reactors performed in CHEKIT Trachitest 2nd Gen. Milk revealed that the slopes of both groups were distinct; therefore, optimised cut-offs for bulk-milk testing to exclude singleton BoHV1-reactors are proposed.

PubMed | Bavarian Animal Health Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2010

Since 2007 a new fatal haemorrhagic diathesis in calves has been observed in all areas of Germany. Analysis of 56 cases submitted for necropsy allowed its characterization. Calves fell ill within the first month of life independent of breed and sex. Only single or a few animals per herd were affected. Petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages in many organs and tissues, particularly in skin, subcutis and gastrointestinal tract, were major findings in all animals. Microscopically a severe depletion of bone marrow cells was always observed. Lymphocytic depletion (43%) and inflammatory lesions (46%) were less frequently observed. Blood analysis of five animals indicated an aplastic pancytopenia. The resulting thrombocytopenia is regarded as major pathomechanism of this Haemorrhagic Disease Syndrome (HDS). Pedigree analysis gave no indication of hereditary disease. Tests for specific toxins such as S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), furazolidone, or mycotoxins resulting in bone marrow depletion were negative. Bacterial infections, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, and Bluetongue Virus were ruled out as cause of the disease. HDS shares similarities with a circoviral infection in chickens (chicken infectious anaemia). A broad-spectrum PCR allowed detection of circoviral DNA in 5 of 25 HDS cases and in 1 of 8 non-HDS cases submitted for necropsy. Sequencing of the whole viral genome revealed a high similarity (up to 99%) with Porcine Circovirus type 2b. Single bone marrow cells stained weakly positive for PCV2 antigen by immunohistochemistry in 1 of 8 tested HDS animals. This is the first report of circovirus detection in cattle in Germany. The exact cause of HDS still remains unknown. A multifactorial aetiology involving infection, poisoning, immunopathy, or a genetic predisposition is conceivable. Additional research is necessary to clarify the pathogenesis and the potential role of PCV2 in HDS.

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