Walters T.R.,Texan Eye |
Goldberg D.F.,Wolstan Eye Associates |
Peace J.H.,United Medical Research Institute |
Gow J.A.,Bausch and Lomb Inc.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2014
Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and ocular safety of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07% (Prolensa) dosed once daily for the treatment of ocular inflammation and pain in subjects who underwent cataract surgery with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Design Two phase 3, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trials. Participants Four hundred forty subjects (440 study eyes: 222 in the bromfenac group and 218 in the placebo group). Methods Two phase 3, prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trials were conducted at 39 ophthalmology clinics in the United States. Subjects 18 years of age or older were randomized to receive either bromfenac 0.07% or placebo dosed once daily beginning 1 day before cataract surgery, on the day of surgery, and continuing for 14 days after surgery (for a total of 16 days). Subjects were evaluated on days 1, 3, 8, 15, and 22 after surgery. The primary efficacy end point was cleared ocular inflammation, as measured by the summed ocular inflammation score of zero (anterior chamber cell count = 0 and absence of flare) by day 15. Secondary end points included cleared ocular inflammation at day 15 and the number of subjects who were pain free at day 1. The data from the 2 clinical trials were integrated for analyses. Main Outcome Measures Summed ocular inflammation score and ocular pain. Results A significantly higher proportion of subjects treated with bromfenac 0.07% achieved complete clearance of ocular inflammation by day 15 and at day 15 compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). A statistically significantly higher proportion of subjects in the bromfenac 0.07% group were pain free at all study visits compared with those in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Fewer subjects in the bromfenac group (3.2%) discontinued investigational product early because of a lack of efficacy than in the placebo group (23.9%; P < 0.0001). The incidence of adverse events was significantly lower in the bromfenac 0.07% group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0041). Conclusions Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07% dosed once daily was clinically safe and effective compared with placebo for the treatment of ocular inflammation and pain in subjects who had undergone cataract surgery and may be a beneficial addition to the current standard of care, which commonly includes ophthalmic antibiotics and corticosteroids. © 2014 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Comstock T.L.,Bausch and Lomb Inc. |
Decory H.H.,Bausch and Lomb Inc.
International Journal of Inflammation | Year: 2012
Topical corticosteroids are effective in reducing anterior segment inflammation but are associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and cataract formation. Retrometabolic drug design has advanced the development of new corticosteroids with improved therapeutic indices. Engineered from prednisolone, loteprednol etabonate (LE) has a 17α-chloromethyl ester, in lieu of a ketone group, and a 17β-etabonate group. LE is highly lipophilic and binds with high affinity to the glucocorticoid receptor; any unbound LE is metabolized to inactive metabolites. LE has been studied in several anterior segment inflammatory conditions (giant papillary conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca), and in postoperative ocular inflammation and pain. Combined with tobramycin, it is effective in blepharokeratoconjunctivitis. Elevations in IOP are infrequent with LE, and the absence of a C-20 ketone precludes formation of Schiff base intermediates with lens proteins, a common first step implicated in cataract formation with ketone steroids. © 2012 Timothy L. Comstock and Heleen H. DeCory.
Cavet M.E.,Bausch and Lomb Inc. |
Vittitow J.L.,Bausch and Lomb Inc. |
Impagnatiello F.,NicOx |
Ongini E.,NicOx |
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2014
The predominant risk factor for the progression of glaucoma is an increase in IOP, mediated via a reduction in aqueous outflow through the conventional (trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal) outflow pathway. Current IOP lowering pharmacological strategies target the uveoscleral (nonconventional) outflow pathway or aqueous humor production; however, to date no therapy that primarily targets the conventional pathway exists. Nitric oxide (NO) is an intracellular signaling molecule produced by endogenous NO synthases, well-known for its key role in vasodilation, through its action on smooth muscle cells. Under physiological conditions, NO mediates a multitude of diverse ocular effects, including maintenance of IOP. Nitric oxide donors have been shown to mediate IOP-lowering effects in both preclinical models and clinical studies, primarily through cell volume and contractility changes in the conventional outflow tissues. This review is focused on evaluating the current knowledge of the role and mechanism of action of endogenous NO and NO donors in IOP regulation. Data on key additional functions of NO in glaucoma pathology (i.e., ocular blood flow and effects on optic neuropathy) are also summarized. The potential for future therapeutic application of NO in the treatment of glaucoma is then discussed. © The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Coffey M.J.,Bausch and Lomb Inc. |
Decory H.H.,Bausch and Lomb Inc.
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2013
The eye has protective barriers (ie, the conjunctival and corneal membranes) and defense mechanisms (ie, reflex tearing, blinking, lacrimal drainage) which present challenges to topical drug delivery. Topical ocular corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of anterior segment diseases and inflammation associated with ocular surgery, and manufacturers continually strive to improve their characteristics. We describe the development of a novel ophthalmic gel formulation of loteprednol etabonate (LE), a C-20 ester-based corticosteroid with an established safety profile, in the treatment of ocular inflammatory conditions. The new LE gel formulation is non-settling, eliminating the need to shake the product to resuspend the drug, has a pH close to that of tears, and a low preservative concentration. The rheological characteristics of LE gel are such that the formulation is instilled as a drop and transitions to a fluid upon instillation in the eye, yet retains sufficient viscosity to prolong ocular surface retention. The new formulation provides consistent, uniform dosing as evidenced by dose extrusion studies, while pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits demonstrated rapid and sustained exposure to LE in ocular tissues following instillation of LE gel. Finally, results from two clinical studies of LE gel in the treatment of postoperative inflammation and pain following cataract surgery indicate that it was safe and effective. Most patients reported no unpleasant drop sensation upon instillation, and reports of blurred vision were rare. © 2013 Coffey et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Pavesio C.,Medical Retina Service |
Zierhut M.,University of Tubingen |
Bairi K.,Bausch and Lomb Inc. |
Comstock T.L.,Bausch and Lomb Inc. |
Usner D.W.,Bausch and Lomb Inc.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2010
Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implant compared with standard therapy in subjects with noninfectious posterior uveitis (NIPU). Design: Randomized, controlled, phase 2b/3, open-label, multicenter superiority trial. Participants: Subjects with unilateral or bilateral NIPU. Methods: One hundred forty subjects received either a 0.59-mg FA intravitreal implant (n = 66) or standard of care (SOC; n = 74) with either systemic prednisolone or equivalent corticosteroid as monotherapy (≥0.2 mg/kg daily) or, if judged necessary by the investigator, combination therapy with an immunosuppressive agent plus a lower dose of prednisolone or equivalent corticosteroid (≥0.1 mg/kg daily). Main Outcome Measures: Time to first recurrence of uveitis. Results: Eyes that received the FA intravitreal implant experienced delayed onset of observed recurrence of uveitis (P<0.01) and a lower rate of recurrence of uveitis (18.2% vs. 63.5%; P≤0.01) compared with SOC study eyes. Adverse events frequently observed in implanted eyes included elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) requiring IOP-lowering surgery (occurring in 21.2% of implanted eyes) and cataracts requiring extraction (occurring in 87.8% of phakic implanted eyes). No treatment-related nonocular adverse events were observed in the implant group, whereas such events occurred in 25.7% of subjects in the SOC group. Conclusions: The FA intravitreal implant provided better control of inflammation in patients with uveitis compared with systemic therapy. Intraocular pressure and lens clarity of implanted eyes need close monitoring in patients receiving the FA intravitreal implant. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology.