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Bauchi, Nigeria

Baigent S.J.,Pirbright Institute | Kgosana L.B.,Pirbright Institute | Gamawa A.A.,Royal Veterinary College | Gamawa A.A.,Bauchi State University | And 3 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2013

To assess the effect of various vaccine strains on replication and shedding of virulent Marek's disease virus from experimentally infected chickens, quantitative PCR (q-PCR) methods were developed to accurately quantify viral DNA in infected chickens and in the environment in which they were housed. Four groups of 10 chickens, kept in poultry isolators, were vaccinated at 1 day old with one of four vaccines covering each of the three vaccine serotypes, then challenged with very virulent MDV strain Md5 at 8 days of age. At regular time-points, feather tips were collected from each chicken and poultry dust was collected from the air-extract prefilter of each isolator. DNA was extracted from feather and dust samples and subjected to real-time q-PCR, targeting the US2 gene of MDV-1, in order to measure Md5 level per 104 feather tip cells or per microgram of dust. Accuracy of DNA extraction from dust and real-time q-PCR were validated by comparing either q-PCR cycle threshold values or the calculated MDV genome level; for use in q-PCR, DNA was extracted from serial dilutions of MDV-infected dust diluted with noninfected dust, or DNA from MDV-infected dust was diluted with DNA from noninfected dust. The results confirmed the accuracy and sensitivity of dust DNA extraction and subsequent q-PCR and showed that differences in virus levels between dust samples truly reflect differences in shedding. Vaccination delayed both replication of Md5 in feather tips and shedding of Md5. First detection of Md5 in feather tips always preceded or coincided with first detection in dust in each group. pCVI988 and HVT+SB-1 were the most efficient vaccines in reducing both replication and shedding of Md5. There was close correlation between mean virus level in feathers of each group and mean virus level in the dust shed by that group. This relationship was similar in each of the vaccinated groups, demonstrating that measurement of the virus in dust can be used to monitor accurately both the infection status of the chickens and environmental contamination by MDV. © American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source


Dalhatu S.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Dalhatu S.A.,Bauchi State University | Hussin R.,University of Technology Malaysia | Deraman K.,University of Technology Malaysia
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2016

Magnesium sulfoborate glasses of different compositions were prepared using melt quenching method with the purpose of using it for optical properties. The Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) have been carried out. Density and molar volume have been evaluated and analysed. From the results of XRD, the absent of discrete and continuous sharp peaks confirmed the amorphous nature of the glass compositions while the results from both FTIR and NMR revealed the existence of BO3, BO4 units. Addition of MgO to sulfoborate influenced the conversion of the dominant BO3 groups to BO4 groups. The BO4 groups are known for creating complex defects that transform into that stable trap good for optical phenomena. It was observed that the density of glass increases while the molar volume is decreases with respect to increase in concentration of alkaline earth oxide in the glass compositions. © 2016 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved. Source


Fapohunda B.M.,John Snow Inc. | Orobaton N.G.,John Snow Inc. | Orobaton N.G.,Bauchi State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

With the current maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 630/100,000 live births, Nigeria ranks among the nations with the highest mortality rates in the world. The use of skilled assistants during delivery has been identified a key predictor in the reduction of mortality rates in the world over. Not only are Nigerian women predominantly using unskilled attendants, one in five births are delivered with No One Present (NOP). We assessed who, what, where and the so what of this practice using 2008 Nigeria DHS (NDHS) data. The study revealed that the prevalence of NOP is highest in the northern part of Nigeria with 94% of all observed cases. Socio-demographic factors, including, women's age at birth, birth order, being Muslim, and region of residence, were positively associated with NOP deliveries. Mother's education, higher wealth quintiles, urban residence, decision-making autonomy, and a supportive environment for women's social and economic security were inversely associated with NOP deliveries. Women's autonomy and social standing were critical to choosing to deliver with skilled attendance, which were further amplified by economic prosperity. Women's' economic wellbeing is entwined with their feelings of independence and freedom. Programs that seek to improve the autonomy of women and their strategic participation in sound health seeking decisions will, most likely, yield better results with improvements in women's education, income, jobs, and property ownership. As a short term measure, the use of conditional cash transfer, proven to work in several countries, including 18 in sub-Saharan Africa, is recommended. Its use has the potential to reduce household budget constraint by lowering cost-related barriers associated with women's ability to demand and use life-saving services. Given the preponderance of NOP in the Northern region, the study suggests that interventions to eradicate NOP deliveries must initially focus this region as priority. © 2013 Fapohunda, Orobaton. Source


Abubakar A.,University Putra Malaysia | Abubakar A.,Bauchi State University | Mustafa M.B.,University Putra Malaysia | Johari W.L.W.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2016

Tributyltin (TBT) is a species of organotin compound (OTC), used as antifouling biocide in boat and ship paints to prevents the attachment of marine organism on their hull surfaces. Tributyltin was found to be very toxic to a variety of targeted and non-targeted organisms and has high persistence in sediments even after the total global ban by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 2008. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clean up TBT-polluted environments after the global banning due to the significant risks it poses to the human and aquatic organisms for its slow degradation rate. In selecting bioremediation agents, indigenous bacteria were documented to be of great potentials compared to non-indigenous. In this study, comparison was made between a bacterial isolate Klebsiella sp. FIRD 2, isolated from TBT-contaminated surface sediment and Pseudomonas specie isolated from non-TBT-contaminated soil. Previously, we isolated, screened, and identified Klebsiella sp. FIRD 2 as a TBT-resistant bacterium from TBT-contaminated surface sediment of Kong Kong Laut, Johor, Malaysia. The isolate was able to resist TBT up to 1500 μg/L without addition of carbon source in minimal salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas sp., isolated from non-TBT-contaminated soil was tested in MSM treated with different concentration of TBT. The bacterium did not endure to survive in TBT-treated media without addition of carbon source; thus, the strain has no ability to utilize TBT as source carbon. Growth of Pseudomonas sp. was observed in MSM treated with TBT at concentration of 500 μg/L and 1000 μg/L along with addition of glucose as carbon source. No growth of Pseudomonas sp. was observed in MSM with higher TBT concentration even with additional of carbon source. This study equally endorses the potentials of indigenous bacteria in bioremediation of TBT contamination. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Maji I.K.,Bauchi State University
Energy Reports | Year: 2015

This paper examines the impact of clean energy on economic growth in Nigeria. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration was used to determine the existence of cointegration among the variables. The long run results suggest a significant negative relationship between two indicators of clean energy (alternative and nuclear energy and electric power consumption) and economic growth. The result further reveals a significant positive relationship between combustible renewables and waste and economic growth. Mixture of negative and positive relationships between clean energy indicators and economic growth was obtained in the short, although not significantly different from zero. We concluded that Nigeria has Potentials of clean energy to be reaped in near future. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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