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Hindatu Y.,University of MalayaKuala Lumpur | Hindatu Y.,Bauchi State University | Annuar M.S.M.,University of MalayaKuala Lumpur | Gumel A.M.,University of Nigeria
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) harnesses the metabolic activities of microorganism to generate electricity from substrate oxidation. However, the power generated from the MFC is relatively low for practical applications, thus the urgent need for its improvement. In MFC, anode is a crucial component of the setup, both structurally and functionally. It provides support for bacterial attachment and simultaneously acts as a sink for electrons from substrate metabolism. Poor performance of anode electrode in MFC is still a major setback for its practical applications. Successful anode electrode modification is expected to enhance the MFC electricity generation efficiency. Materials such as carbon nanotube, stainless steel, conducting polymers, metal oxides, and electrolytes have been employed as anode electrode modifiers with varying degree of success. Henceforth, this communication highlights and discusses the latest research advances made in MFC anode electrode modification using the aforementioned materials. The importance of the modification methods and their consequences towards anode architecture, biocompatibility, and longevity to improve the overall MFC performance are discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Sulaiman C.,University Putra Malaysia | Sulaiman C.,Bauchi State University | Abdul-Rahim A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Chin L.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd-Shahwahid H.O.,University Putra Malaysia
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Hindatu Y.,University of Malaya | Hindatu Y.,Bauchi State University | Annuar M.S.M.,University of Malaya | Subramaniam R.,University of Malaya | Gumel A.M.,Federal University, Dutse
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2017

Insufficient power generation from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) hampers its progress towards utility-scale development. Electrode modification with biopolymeric materials could potentially address this issue. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)/carbon nanotubes (C) composite (CPHA) was successfully applied to modify the surface of carbon cloth (CC) anode in MFC. Characterization of the functional groups on the anodic surface and its morphology was carried out. The CC-CPHA composite anode recorded maximum power density of 254 mW/m2, which was 15–53% higher than the MFC operated with CC-C (214 mW/m2) and pristine CC (119 mW/m2) as the anode in a double-chambered MFC operated with Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry showed that power enhancement was attributed to better electron transfer capability by the bacteria for the MFC setup with CC-CPHA anode. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Usman M.J.,Bauchi State University | Xing Z.,China University of Technology | Chiroma H.R.,University of Malaya | Gital A.Y.,University of Technology Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2014

In this paper, we propose a Modified Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (MoLEACH) protocol to improve energy consumption in in Wireless Sensor Networks. The novelty of MoLEACH is that, unlike the original LEACH that uses the residual energy of the network, it considers the residual energy of each node for calculation of the threshold value for the next round in cluster head selection. We make comparative simulation analysis between the MoLEACH and LEACH in testing different parameters such as first node dead, half node dead, and the effect of the number of nodes to the network lifetime. The simulation results show that the number of nodes affects the network lifetime in which increments of number of nodes decrease the network lifetime. In small area, minimum number of nodes is better for network lifetime in both MoLEACH and LEACH protocols. Hence, MoLEACH shows improvement of energy efficiency over the LEACH. © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. All rights reserved.


Abdulhameed M.,Bauchi State University | Vieru D.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | Roslan R.,University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia | Shafie S.,University of Technology Malaysia
Meccanica | Year: 2016

The flow of an oscillating motion of viscoelastic fluid in a capillary tube is modelled to determine a sinusoidal waveform effect on the heat transfer performance. Analytical technique based on finite Hankel transformation, incorporating Laplace transformation and combined with confluent hypergeometric function (Kummer’s function) is implemented in time and space with the constitutive model for the viscoelastic fluid. Explicit analytical expressions for the steady, permanent and transient solutions for both the velocity and temperature fields describing the flow at small and large times have been derived. The results are displayed graphically, and the influence of the Prandtl number Pr and transient amplitude (Formula presented.) is discussed. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Sarmin N.H.,University of Technology Malaysia | Gambo I.,Bauchi State University | Omer S.M.S.,University of Benghazi
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2015

In this paper, G denotes a non-abelian metabelian group and cl(x) denotes conjugacy class of the element x in G. Conjugacy class is an equivalence relation and it partitions the group into disjoint equivalence classes or sets. Meanwhile, a group is called metabelian if it has an abelian normal subgroup in which the factor group is also abelian. It has been proven by an earlier researcher that there are 25 non-abelian metabelian groups of order less than 24 which are considered in this paper. In this study, the number of conjugacy classes of non-abelian metabelian groups of order less than 24 is computed. © 2015 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.


Buba J.A.A.,P.A. College | Al-Shujairi Y.B.J.,University Putra Malaysia | Ya'U M.S.,Bauchi State University
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016

It is quite interesting to note that Pidgin which essentially began as a demanded language between the white importers, who later turned colonial masters, and their black traders has now become a campus language-spoken of the majority of the population among the Nigerian students in advanced institutions of learning. Nigerian Pidgin English evolved as a result of language contact with the British colonialists. This study seeks to assess the use, and also determine the recognition of Pidgin English among Nigerian postgraduate students in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Questionnaires were administered on selected students in the university in an attempt to elicit the attitude and usage of the informants to Nigerian Pidgin English. The results were calculated in percentages. It was found that the attitude of Nigerian students regarding the Nigerian Pidgin English in UPM is positive. To conclude, in the next few years, Nigerians are expected to use Nigerian Pidgin English in all situations when they communicate. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University Putra Malaysia and Bauchi State University
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

Breast cancer is the malignant tumour that developed from cells of the breast and is the first leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the available treatments for breast cancer, but these were reported to have side effects. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) known as Avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV1) belongs to the genus Avulavirus in a family Paramyxoviridae. NDV is shown to be a promising anticancer agent, killing tumour cells while sparing normal cells unharmed. In this study, the oncolytic and cytotoxic activities of NDV AF2240 strain were evaluated on MDA-MB-231, human mammary carcinoma cell line, using MTT assay, and its inhibitory effects were further studied using proliferation and migration assays. Morphological and apoptotic-inducing effects of NDV on MD-MB-231 cells were observed using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopes. Detection of DNA fragmentation was done following terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated Br-dUTP nick end labeling staining (TUNEL) assay, which confirmed that the mode of death was through apoptosis and was quantified by flow cytometry. Furthermore, analysis of cellular DNA content demonstrated that the virus caused an increase in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic peak) of the cell cycle. It appears that NDV AF2240 strain is a potent anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in time-dependent manner.


PubMed | University Putra Malaysia and Bauchi State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2015

A possible tributyltin (TBT)-degrading bacterium isolated from contaminated surface sediment was successfully identified as Klebsiella sp. FIRD 2. It was found to be the best isolate capable of resisting TBT at a concentration of 1000 g L(-1). This was a concentration above the reported contaminated level at the sampling station, 790 g L(-1). Further studies revealed that the isolate was Gram negative and resisted TBT concentrations of up to 1500 g L(-1) in a Minimal Salt Broth without the addition of any carbon source within the first 48 h of incubation. It is expected that additional work could be conducted to check the degradation activity of this new isolate and possibly improve the degradation capacity in order to contribute to finding a safe and sustainable remediation solution of TBT contamination.


Maji I.K.,Bauchi State University
Energy Reports | Year: 2015

This paper examines the impact of clean energy on economic growth in Nigeria. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration was used to determine the existence of cointegration among the variables. The long run results suggest a significant negative relationship between two indicators of clean energy (alternative and nuclear energy and electric power consumption) and economic growth. The result further reveals a significant positive relationship between combustible renewables and waste and economic growth. Mixture of negative and positive relationships between clean energy indicators and economic growth was obtained in the short, although not significantly different from zero. We concluded that Nigeria has Potentials of clean energy to be reaped in near future. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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