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Hindatu Y.,University of MalayaKuala Lumpur | Hindatu Y.,Bauchi State University | Annuar M.S.M.,University of MalayaKuala Lumpur | Gumel A.M.,University of Nigeria
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) harnesses the metabolic activities of microorganism to generate electricity from substrate oxidation. However, the power generated from the MFC is relatively low for practical applications, thus the urgent need for its improvement. In MFC, anode is a crucial component of the setup, both structurally and functionally. It provides support for bacterial attachment and simultaneously acts as a sink for electrons from substrate metabolism. Poor performance of anode electrode in MFC is still a major setback for its practical applications. Successful anode electrode modification is expected to enhance the MFC electricity generation efficiency. Materials such as carbon nanotube, stainless steel, conducting polymers, metal oxides, and electrolytes have been employed as anode electrode modifiers with varying degree of success. Henceforth, this communication highlights and discusses the latest research advances made in MFC anode electrode modification using the aforementioned materials. The importance of the modification methods and their consequences towards anode architecture, biocompatibility, and longevity to improve the overall MFC performance are discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Sulaiman C.,University Putra Malaysia | Sulaiman C.,Bauchi State University | Abdul-Rahim A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Chin L.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd-Shahwahid H.O.,University Putra Malaysia
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Hindatu Y.,University of Malaya | Hindatu Y.,Bauchi State University | Annuar M.S.M.,University of Malaya | Subramaniam R.,University of Malaya | Gumel A.M.,Federal University, Dutse
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2017

Insufficient power generation from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) hampers its progress towards utility-scale development. Electrode modification with biopolymeric materials could potentially address this issue. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)/carbon nanotubes (C) composite (CPHA) was successfully applied to modify the surface of carbon cloth (CC) anode in MFC. Characterization of the functional groups on the anodic surface and its morphology was carried out. The CC-CPHA composite anode recorded maximum power density of 254 mW/m2, which was 15–53% higher than the MFC operated with CC-C (214 mW/m2) and pristine CC (119 mW/m2) as the anode in a double-chambered MFC operated with Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry showed that power enhancement was attributed to better electron transfer capability by the bacteria for the MFC setup with CC-CPHA anode. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Abdulhameed M.,Bauchi State University | Vieru D.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | Shafie S.,University of Technology Malaysia
Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal | Year: 2016

In the present investigation, an oscillating motion of unsteady Burger's fluid in a circular cylinder was modeled with different pressure waveforms. Three different waveforms are considered: the case of a trapezoidal, triangular and sinusoidal waveform. Analytical solutions of velocity and temperature distribution are obtained for an oscillating laminar flow, which can be used to analyze the effects of flow type on the heat transfer performance. The limiting cases have been considered to examine the heat transfer performance of four different non-Newtonian fluids. Results show that the heat transfer of the oscillating flow depends on the fluid material parameter, Prandtl number, amplitude oscillating waveform and radial coordinate. The trapezoidal and sinusoidal waveforms of oscillating motion can result in a higher heat transfer performance. © 2016 Karabuk University


Umar S.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Umar S.A.,Bauchi State University | Halimah M.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Chan K.T.,University Putra Malaysia | Latif A.A.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids | Year: 2017

Glasses system was fabricated using the chemical composition ([(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]0.8 (SiO2)0.2)1-x (Er2O3)x with x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 by melt-quenching method. The glasses were subjected to FTIR and XRD to study the glass structural changes and amorphous nature respectively. The absorption spectrum of the glasses were obtained from UV-Vis spectroscopy and used to calculate the energy band gap. Using the Archimedes principle, the density and the molar volume were determined. From the density, molar volume, and energy band gap, other parameters such as refractive index, molar refractive index, metallization criterion, reflection loss, transmission coefficient, polarizability, optical basicity, polaron radius, dielectric constant, optical dielectric constant, electric susceptibility, average electronegativity and others parameters were obtained by calculation. The polarizability values and the optical basicity were found to increase with Er3+ ions concentration increase. The dielectric constant, optical dielectric constant and the linear electric susceptibility decreased with increase in Er3+ ions concentration. The properties studied for the erbium doped glass system suggest the glass system has a potential in the EDFA application. © 2017.


Umar S.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Umar S.A.,Bauchi State University | Halimah M.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Chan K.T.,University Putra Malaysia | Latif A.A.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids | Year: 2017

A series of erbium doped rice husk silicate borotellurite glasses with chemical composition ([(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]0.8 (SiO2)0.2)1-x (Er2O3)x with x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05mol was prepared using the melt-quenching technique. The density and the molar volume were determined and found to be increasing with Er3+ concentration. The glasses were subjected to FTIR and XRD to study the structural changes in the glass. UV-Vis spectroscopy was carried out to obtain the absorption spectrum that is used in the calculation of the optical energy band gap (Direct and Indirect), the Urbach energy and the refractive index. Using the refractive index, density and molar volume, the molar polarizability, metallization criterion, polaron radius, average boron-boron separation, inter-nuclear distance of Er3+, surface reflection loss, transmission coefficient and oxygen packing density were determined. The density, molar volume, optical band gaps, molar refraction, transmission coefficient and metallization criterion were found to have increased with increasing concentration of Er3+ ions. While the values of the refractive index, Urbach energy and inter-nuclear distance of Er3+ ions decreased. As more Er3+ ions were introduced, the reflectivity of the glasses decreased. The polaron radius also decreased, with the values suggesting that the glass has small polaron. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Haruna B.,University of Malaya | Haruna B.,Bauchi State University | Kiran K.,University of Malaya | Tahira M.,University of Malaya
Electronic Library | Year: 2017

Purpose-This study aims to empirically validate the LibWebSQ measurement scale. In addition, it investigates the relationship between perceived web-based service quality and three other latent constructs, namely, user satisfaction, service value and user loyalty. Design/methodology/approach-A quantitative survey design was used to collect the data. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the influence of web-based service quality on the three latent constructs. The respondents were students, academic staff and non-academic staff from two federal universities in the North-western zone of Nigeria. Findings-The findings of the path analysis indicate that perceived web-based service quality and service value exhibit no statistically significant direct influence on user loyalty. However, user satisfaction has a direct positive influence on user loyalty, and it also mediates the relationship between web-based service quality and user loyalty to the library. Research limitations/implications-The LibWebSQ is a reliable and valid scale to be used in Nigerian university libraries for web-based service quality measurement. User loyalty in academic libraries can be modelled as a result of service quality and user satisfaction Practical implications-This study provides a means of assessing web-based library service quality and further improving the policy and practice in university libraries. Originality value-This is the first attempt to assess web-based library service quality using the LibWebSQ measurement scale. A satisfactory model fit is obtained, which allows the measurement model to be integrated with service value, user satisfaction and user loyalty. The study contributes to the conceptualization of web-based library service quality. © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited.


Abdulhameed M.,Bauchi State University | Vieru D.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | Roslan R.,University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia | Shafie S.,University of Technology Malaysia
Meccanica | Year: 2016

The flow of an oscillating motion of viscoelastic fluid in a capillary tube is modelled to determine a sinusoidal waveform effect on the heat transfer performance. Analytical technique based on finite Hankel transformation, incorporating Laplace transformation and combined with confluent hypergeometric function (Kummer’s function) is implemented in time and space with the constitutive model for the viscoelastic fluid. Explicit analytical expressions for the steady, permanent and transient solutions for both the velocity and temperature fields describing the flow at small and large times have been derived. The results are displayed graphically, and the influence of the Prandtl number Pr and transient amplitude (Formula presented.) is discussed. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Buba J.A.A.,P.A. College | Al-Shujairi Y.B.J.,University Putra Malaysia | Ya'U M.S.,Bauchi State University
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016

It is quite interesting to note that Pidgin which essentially began as a demanded language between the white importers, who later turned colonial masters, and their black traders has now become a campus language-spoken of the majority of the population among the Nigerian students in advanced institutions of learning. Nigerian Pidgin English evolved as a result of language contact with the British colonialists. This study seeks to assess the use, and also determine the recognition of Pidgin English among Nigerian postgraduate students in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Questionnaires were administered on selected students in the university in an attempt to elicit the attitude and usage of the informants to Nigerian Pidgin English. The results were calculated in percentages. It was found that the attitude of Nigerian students regarding the Nigerian Pidgin English in UPM is positive. To conclude, in the next few years, Nigerians are expected to use Nigerian Pidgin English in all situations when they communicate. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.


Maji I.K.,Bauchi State University
Energy Reports | Year: 2015

This paper examines the impact of clean energy on economic growth in Nigeria. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration was used to determine the existence of cointegration among the variables. The long run results suggest a significant negative relationship between two indicators of clean energy (alternative and nuclear energy and electric power consumption) and economic growth. The result further reveals a significant positive relationship between combustible renewables and waste and economic growth. Mixture of negative and positive relationships between clean energy indicators and economic growth was obtained in the short, although not significantly different from zero. We concluded that Nigeria has Potentials of clean energy to be reaped in near future. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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