Cutts F.T.,Independent Consultant |
Izurieta H.S.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2013
Vaccination coverage is an important public health indicator that is measured using administrative reports and/or surveys. The measurement of vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries using surveys is susceptible to numerous challenges. These challenges include selection bias and information bias, which cannot be solved by increasing the sample size, and the precision of the coverage estimate, which is determined by the survey sample size and sampling method. Selection bias can result from an inaccurate sampling frame or inappropriate field procedures and, since populations likely to be missed in a vaccination coverage survey are also likely to be missed by vaccination teams, most often inflates coverage estimates. Importantly, the large multi-purpose household surveys that are often used to measure vaccination coverage have invested substantial effort to reduce selection bias. Information bias occurs when a child's vaccination status is misclassified due to mistakes on his or her vaccination record, in data transcription, in the way survey questions are presented, or in the guardian's recall of vaccination for children without a written record. There has been substantial reliance on the guardian's recall in recent surveys, and, worryingly, information bias may become more likely in the future as immunization schedules become more complex and variable. Finally, some surveys assess immunity directly using serological assays. Sero-surveys are important for assessing public health risk, but currently are unable to validate coverage estimates directly. To improve vaccination coverage estimates based on surveys, we recommend that recording tools and practices should be improved and that surveys should incorporate best practices for design, implementation, and analysis. Source
Agency: NSF | Branch: Cooperative Agreement | Program: | Phase: NEON-OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE | Award Amount: 6.85M | Year: 2016
The biosphere is one of the planets most complex systems with countless internal processes and interactions with the earths physical processes and systems. It is imperative that we understand how the biosphere is responding to and affecting earths physical systems, yet our understanding of the biosphere does not match our increasingly sophisticated understanding of the earths physical and chemical systems at regional, continental, and global scales. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to understand and predict: (1) how ecosystems work and respond to changes, especially at large scales; (2) how ecosystem processes feed back to alter earth system processes, including climate and hydrology; and (3) the implications of these processes and feedbacks for human endeavors. NEON will enable research on the impacts of climate and land use change, unsustainable water use, and invasive species on the Nations living ecosystems at the temporal and spatial scales that are relevant to human well-being. NEON will be the first research platform and the only national experimental facility specifically designed to enable research to answer continental-scale questions on causes of and responses to environmental change and the mechanisms involved in observed changes. NEON will be the first experimental facility to collect consistent and standardized biological measurements across nationwide sites and to make the data available in close to real-time.
This award provides support for initial operations of the NEON observatory. Funds are provided to use the geographically distributed field and lab infrastructure networked via cybertechnology as an integrated research platform. Cutting-edge sensor networks, instrumentation, experimental infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support facilities including towers and board walks, and biological sampling plots will be employed in the continental US, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Alaska. Airborne remote sensing systems and mobile laboratories will be deployed. Funds are provided for central technical, cyberinfrastructure, and project management facilities and support staff. Funds are provided for NEONs education and outreach portals and staff training programs. The data from these resources will be linked to computational, analytical, and modeling capabilities to create NEONs integrated infrastructure.
Battelle | Date: 2015-08-11
Embodiments of branched polymer lubricant additives comprise a branched polymer and, when combined with a lubricant base at a concentration from 1 wt % to 50 wt %, provide (i) a viscosity index 150, (ii) that is at least 10% less than a coefficient of friction of the lubricant base alone in contact with a component of a device during operation of the device at a temperature within a range of 20 to 100 C., or (iii) both (i) and (ii).
Battelle | Date: 2015-03-25
A porous polymer membrane useful in gas separation, the porous polymer membrane comprising a polymeric structure having crosslinked aromatic groups and a hierarchical porosity in which micropores having a pore size less than 2 nm are present at least in an outer layer of the porous polymer membrane, and macropores having a pore size of over 50 nm are present at least in an inner layer of the porous polymer membrane. Also described are methods for producing the porous polymer membrane in which a non-porous polymer membrane containing aromatic rings is subjected to a Friedel-Crafts crosslinking reaction in which a crosslinking molecule crosslinks the aromatic rings in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst and organic solvent under sufficiently elevated temperature, as well as methods for using the porous polymer membranes for gas or liquid separation, filtration, or purification.
Battelle | Date: 2015-10-19
Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from