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Adin H.,Batman University
Applied Mathematical Modelling | Year: 2012

In this paper, the mechanical behavior of the scarf lap joints (SLJs) bonded with adhesive (Vinylester Atlac 580) under a tensile load was analyzed. The effects of scarf angle at the interface strain distributions of SLJs were examined. The stress analyses were performed via three dimensional Finite Element Method (3D-FEM). The 3D-FEM code employed was Ansys (12.0). Experimental results were compared with the 3D-FEM results and were found quite reasonable. The results indicated that the maximum values of the normalized ε x strain values were determined at θ= 60° in all joints. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Behcet R.,Batman University
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2011

Because of the concern about the fact that the oil based fuels may deplete and the oil prices constantly increase, alternative energy sources have come into the agenda. Vegetable oils, animal fats and waste oils are being used as alternative fuels to petroleum based diesel fuel. The use of vegetable oil and animal fat in internal combustion engines is not a new technology, but the usage of this technology with fish oil has become more important recently. Therefore, in this study, fish oil (FO) and fish oil biodiesel (FOME) were used in a single cylinder, four stroke naturally aspirated diesel engine; and petroleum Diesel no:2 (D2) was also used as a base fuel for making comparison. Fish oil obtained from marine fishes was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of FO, FOME and D2 fuels were found, respectively. The engine performance and emission characteristics of test fuels were clarified at different engine speeds. Results showed that FOME had similar fuel properties with D2. However, density, kinematical viscosity and flash point of FO were excessively higher than that of D2. Torque and power of FO and FOME were lower in comparison to that of D2 while brake specific values were higher for both FO and FOME. However, exhaust emission values for both FO and FOME were quite lower than that of D2. FOME fuel has better fuel properties, performance values and emission characteristics than that of FO. © Sila Science.


Altun S.,Batman University
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2011

Vegetable oils and animal fats are widely investigated as a alternative fuel for diesel engines because of their high cetane number. However, animal fats are highly viscous and mostly in solid form at ambient temperature that they need modifications before using them in diesel engines. Pre-heated, blending, transesterification and emulsification are well known to improve usage of animal fats in diesel engines. In this study, biodiesel was produced from a hybrid feedstock (60% crude canola oil/40% inedible animal tallow) by transesterification and tested in a DI diesel engine for determining exhaust emissions and comparing those of biodiesel from pure animal tallow. Biodiesel fuels were tested as blends in diesel fuel (50% biodiesel and 50% diesel fuel). The experimental results show that, compared with animal tallow biodiesel blend, hybrid feedstock biodiesel blend has higher viscosity, density, brake specific fuel consumption, CO and NO x emissions and a lower cetane number, brake thermal efficiency. © Sila Science.


Behcet R.,Batman University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2011

Waste anchovy fish oils transesterification was studied with the purpose of achieving the conditions for biodiesel usage in a single cylinder, direct injection compression ignition. With this purpose, the pure biodiesel produced from anchovy fish oil, biodiesel-diesel fuel blends of 25%:75% biodiesel-diesel (B25), 50%:50% biodiesel-diesel (B50), 75%:25% biodiesel-diesel (B75) and petroleum diesel fuels were used in the engine to specify how the engine performance and exhaust emission parameters changed. The fuel properties of test fuels were analyzed. Tests were performed at full load engine operation with variable speeds of 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm engine speeds. As results of investigations on comparison of fuels with each other, there has been a decrease with 4.14% in fish oil methyl ester (FOME) and its blends' engine torque, averagely 5.16% reduction in engine power, while 4.96% increase in specific fuel consumption have been observed. On one hand there has been average reduction as 4.576%, 21.3%, 33.42% in CO2, CO, HC, respectively; on the other hand, there has been increase as 9.63%, 29.37% and 7.54% in O2, NOx and exhaust gas temperature has been observed. It was also found that biodiesel from anchovy fish oil contains 37.93 wt.% saturated fatty acids which helps to improve cetane number and lower NOx emissions. Besides, for biodiesel and its blends, average smoke opacity was reduces about 16% in comparison to D2. It can be concluded that waste anchovy fish obtained from biodiesel can be used as a substitute for petroleum diesel in diesel engines. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Altun S.,Batman University
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2011

Bio diesel is an oxygenated diesel fuel obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats via transesterification reaction. The fuel properties such as viscosity, density, cetane number and heating value are very important for determining the suitability of bio diesel as a diesel engine fuel. These fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock which is used in the bio diesel production. In this study, the effect of bio diesels produced from different feed stocks such as inedible animal tallow, crude canola oil and canola oil blended with animal tallow on the fuel properties were experimentally investigated. Bio diesel fuels and their blends with petroluem diesel fuel were compared with petroleum diesel (petrodiesel). The results showed that the viscosity and density of all the methyl esters were higher than that of petrodiesel, while the heating values of the methyl esters was lower. Besides, the viscosity and the density of methyl esters are within the bio diesel standards, except for animal tallow methyl ester and it was slightly out of the specification EN 14214. Animal tallow bio diesel has the highest cetane number than those of other fuels include petrodiesel. It is concluded that bio diesels and their blends with petrodiesel have suitable fuel properties, especially cetane numbers, for diesel combustion process. © Sila Science.


Levent A.,Batman University
Diamond and Related Materials | Year: 2012

In this study, a boron-doped diamond electrode was used for the electroanalytical determination of melatonin in the pharmaceutical tablet and urine samples by square-wave voltammetry. Melatonin yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 3.0 at + 0.88 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Using the optimal square-wave voltammetry conditions, the oxidation peak was used to determine melatonin in the concentration range of 5.0 × 10 7 M to 4.0 × 10 6 M (r = 0.998, n = 8), a detection limit of 1.1 × 10 7 M (0.025 μg/mL) and relative standard deviation was 2.06% at the 2.0 × 10 6 M level (n = 10). Recoveries of melatonin were in the range of 97.67-105%, for both tablet and spiked human urine samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


In this work, three biodiesel fuels with iodine numbers ranging from 59 to 185 were tested in a direct-injection diesel engine powered generator set at constant speed of 1500 rpm under variable load conditions to investigate the effect of the degree of unsaturation of biodiesel fuels, which are quantified by the iodine number, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. The increase in unsaturation involved a decrease in cetane number, and therefore, allowed for the maximization of the effect of the cetane number, while other properties, such as oxygen content, heating value, and viscosity, varied within a small range. Experimental results showed that biodiesel fuels resulted in lower emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and smoke opacity, with some increase in emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. With their low energy content, neat biodiesel fuels resulted in an increase in fuel consumption compared to the conventional diesel fuel (ultra-low sulphur diesel). The degree of unsaturation of biodiesel fuels had effects on engine emissions via its effect on the cetane number and adiabatic flame temperature while engine performance was not significantly affected by the type of biodiesel fuel or its degree of unsaturation. The biodiesel having lowest iodine number had highest cetane number, and lowest density and adiabatic flame temperature, which was good to reduce NOx emissions, as it agreed with experimental results. Additionally, more unsaturated biodiesel fuels showed higher NOx emissions, smoke opacity, and lower HC emissions. It can be said that cetane number and adiabatic flame temperature are responsible for such results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


The possibility of using pure vegetable oils in a thermally insulated diesel engine has been experimentally investigated. Initially, the standard diesel fuel was tested in the engine, as base experiment for comparison. Then the engine was thermally insulated by coating some parts of it, such as piston, exhaust and intake valves surfaces with zirconium oxide (ZrO2). The main purpose of engine coating was to reduce heat rejection from the walls of combustion chamber and to increase thermal efficiency and thus to increase performance of the engine that using vegetable oil blends. Another aim of the study was to improve the usability of pure vegetable oils in diesel engines without performing any fuel treatments such as pyrolysis, emulsification and transesterification. Pure inedible cottonseed oil and sunflower oil were blended with diesel fuel. Blends and diesel fuel were then tested in the coated diesel engine. Experimental results proved that the main purpose of this study was achieved as the engine performance parameters such as power and torque were increased with simultaneous decrease in fuel consumption (bsfc). Furthermore, exhaust emission parameters such as CO, HC, and Smoke opacity were decreased. Also, sunflower oil blends presented better performance and emission parameters than cottonseed oil blends. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gullu O.,Batman University
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2010

Here I demonstrate that DNA biopolymer molecules can control the electrical characteristics of conventional Al/n-InP metal-semiconductor contacts. Results show that DNA increases an effective barrier height as high as 0.87 eV by influencing the space charge region of n-InP device with a good rectifying behavior. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Adin H.,Batman University
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2012

In this study, the effect of scarf angle on tensile strength of an epoxy adhesive was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Tensile tests were carried out using Scarf Lap Joints (SLJs). Commercially available epoxy (Atlac 580) was used as adhesive and fiber reinforced epoxy/glass (Hgw 2372 Grade G10 EP GC 203) was used as adherends. The stress analyses were performed using a three-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). The FEM analyses were executed with Ansys (V.14.0.1). Experimental results were compared with the FEM results and found quite reasonable. The results have indicated that when overlap angle increases, the failure load values also decrease in all joints. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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