Bassini Hospital

Cinisello Balsamo, Italy

Bassini Hospital

Cinisello Balsamo, Italy
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Norata G.D.,University of Milan | Norata G.D.,Bassini Hospital | Caligiuri G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Caligiuri G.,University Paris Diderot | And 7 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2015

The immune response requires major changes to metabolic processes, and indeed, energy metabolism and functional activation are fully integrated in immune cells to determine their ability to divide, differentiate, and carry out effector functions. Immune cell metabolism has therefore become an attractive target area for therapeutic purposes. A neglected aspect in the translation of immunometabolism is the critical connection between systemic and cellular metabolism. Here, we discuss the importance of understanding and manipulating the integration of systemic and immune cell metabolism through in-depth analysis of immune cell phenotype and function in human metabolic diseases and, in parallel, of the effects of conventional metabolic drugs on immune cell differentiation and function. We examine how the recent identification of selective metabolic programs operating in distinct immune cell subsets and functions has the potential to deliver tools for cell- and function-specific immunometabolic targeting. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Norata G.D.,University of Milan | Norata G.D.,Bassini Hospital | Pirillo A.,Bassini Hospital | Ammirati E.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | And 3 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2012

High density lipoproteins (HDL) possess a number of physiological activities. The most studied and, perhaps, better understood is the ability of HDL to promote excess cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues and transport to the liver for excretion, a mechanism believed to confer protection against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The ability of HDL to modulate cholesterol bioavailability in the lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol, is evolutionary conserved and affects the properties of cells involved in the innate and adaptive immune response, tuning inflammatory response and antigen presentation functions in macrophages as well as B and T cell activation. Also sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P), a major active sphingolipid carried by HDL, is of relevance in the pathogenesis of several immuno-inflammatory disorders through the modulation of macrophage and lymphocyte functions. Furthermore, HDL influence the humoral innate immunity by modulating the activation of the complement system and the expression of pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Finally, in humans, HDL levels and functions are altered in several immune-mediated disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus eritematosus, Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis as well as during inflammatory responses.Altogether these observations suggest that the effects of HDL in immunity could be related, to either the ability of HDL to modulate cholesterol content in immune cell lipid rafts and to their role as reservoir for several biologically active substances that may impact the immune system. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Norata G.D.,University of Milan | Norata G.D.,Bassini Hospital | Tibolla G.,University of Milan | Catapano A.L.,University of Milan
Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Hypercholesterolemia, is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Undestanding of the biochemical mechanisms that regulate the expression of the low density lipoproteins receptor (LDLR) and the hepatic clearance of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) paved the way to the statin therapy as the gold standard for CVD prevention. The discovery of proteins that regulate - at a post-translational level - the activity of the LDLR has been a major breakthrough in developing new cholesterol-lowering drugs. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key modulator of the LDLR degradation in the liver. Genetic studies confirmed that in humans PCSK9 mutations associate with hypercholesterolemia and hypocholesterolemia (gain-of-function or loss-of-function variants respectively). Moreover, PCSK9 is up-regulated by statin treatment and limits the efficacy of these agents. These findings led to the development of PCSK9 inhibitors. Anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies showed encouraging results and are currently being evaluated in phase III clinical trials. The aim of this short review is to describe the new frontier of PCSK9 inhibition in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Emphasis here is given to critical emerging issues linked to PCSK9 physiology and pharmacology, which will require future investigation to definitely address the potential of anti-PCSK9 drugs in clinical practice. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Norata G.D.,University of Milan | Norata G.D.,Bassini Hospital | Tibolla G.,University of Milan | Catapano A.L.,University of Milan
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2014

The mechanism(s) underlying the occurrence of statin-induced myopathy are ill defined, but the results of observational studies and clinical trials provide compelling evidence that skeletal muscle toxicity is a frequent, dose-dependent, adverse event associated with all statins. It has been suggested that reduced availability of metabolites produced by the mevalonate pathway rather than intracellular cholesterol lowering per se might be the primary trigger of toxicity, however other alternative explanations have gained credibility in recent years. Aim of this review is: (i) to describe the molecular mechanisms associated to statin induced myopathy including defects in isoprenoids synthesis followed by altered prenylation of small GTPase, such as Ras and Rab proteins; (ii) to present the emerging aspects on pharmacogenetics, including CYP3A4, OATP1B1 and glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) polymorphisms impacting either statin bioavailability or creatine synthesis; (iii) to summarize the available epidemiological evidences; and (iii) to discuss the concepts that would be of interest to the clinicians for the daily management of patients with statin induced myopathy. The interplay between drug-environment and drug-drug interaction in the context of different genetic settings contribute to statins and skeletal muscles toxicity. Until specific assays/algorithms able to combine genetic scores with drug-drug-environment interaction to identify patients at risk of myopathies will become available, clinicians should continue to monitor carefully patients on polytherapy which include statins and be ready to reconsider dose, statin or switching to alternative treatments. The beneficial effects of adding agents to provide the muscle with the metabolites, such as CoQ10, affected by statin treatment will also be addressed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Pirillo A.,Bassini Hospital | Catapano A.L.,Bassini Hospital | Catapano A.L.,University of Milan
Disease Markers | Year: 2013

Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), themain oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) in endothelial cells, is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in several cellular processes that regulate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.The LOX-1 expressed on the cell surface can be proteolytically cleaved and released in a soluble form(sLOX-1) in the circulation under pathological conditions. Serumlevels of sLOX-1, in fact, are elevated at the early stages of acute coronary syndrome and are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability and with the presence of multiple complex coronary lesions. Moreover, in subjects with stable CAD, levels of serum sLOX-1 are associated with the presence of lesions in the proximal and mid-segments of the left anterior descending artery that are the most prone to rupture; in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, baseline preprocedural serum sLOX-1 levels are associated with the incidence of periprocedural myocardial Infarction. Altogether, these findings suggest that circulating levels of sLOX-1 might be a diagnostic and prognostic marker for atherosclerotic-related events. Copyright © 2013 Peter Kruzliak et al.


Pirillo A.,Bassini Hospital | Pirillo A.,University of Milan | Catapano A.L.,University of Milan
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; high-risk patients with HTG, such as those with metabolic syndrome or diabetes, may benefit from hypolipidaemic therapies. Several lipid-lowering drugs act by reducing triglyceride (TG) levels, including fibrates, nicotinic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dose-dependently reduce plasma TG levels; the effect tends to be greater in patients with higher TG levels at baseline. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that EPA + DHA doses of ≥ 2 g/day are required to achieve significant effects. The optimal TG-lowering doses of EPA + DHA are 3-4 g/day, with little evidence to support lipid-altering efficacy of doses of EPA and DHA < 1 g/day. Predicted changes in fasting serum TG levels at the recommended dietary intakes of EPA and/or DHA of 200-500 mg/day are - 3.1% to - 7.2%. Reductions of plasma TG levels at the optimal doses are from 25-35% up to 45% in the presence of severely elevated TG levels (≥ 500 mg/dl; ≥ 5.65 mmol/l), along with a reduction in non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and an increase in HDL-C. This observation has also been confirmed in statin-treated patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Pirillo A.,Bassini Hospital | Catapano A.L.,IRCCS MultiMedica | Catapano A.L.,University of Milan
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2015

Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline plant alkaloid endowed with several pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, glucose- and cholesterol-lowering, anti-tumoral and immunomodulatory properties. The main mechanism by which BBR exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis relates to its cholesterol-lowering activity. BBR significantly increases hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression and reduces the expression and secretion of the LDLR modulator proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). In addition to this, several other atheroprotective effects have been ascribed to BBR, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and improvement of endothelial dysfunction. BBR also increases glucose utilization in adipocytes and myocytes, while decreases glucose absorption in intestinal cells, resulting in a net hypoglycemic effect. In hypercholesterolemic animals, BBR significantly decreases LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC) levels and reduces aortic lesions, an effect similar to that of statins. In diabetic animals, BBR significantly reduces glucose levels, improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and adipose tissue mass. Several clinical studies have also tested the efficacy of BBR in humans. In hypercholesterolemic subjects, BBR induces a significant reduction of TC, triglycerides and LDL-C levels and a significant increase of HDL-C levels, without major adverse effects. BBR also reduces glycemia and plasma cholesterol in diabetic patients, improves lipid and glucose profile and decreases body mass index and waist circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome. These findings, together with the good tolerability, suggest that BBR administration might be considered a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia or diabetes. Given the level of evidence available to date well-designed randomized controlled trials to test safety and efficacy of BBR are warranted. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Pirillo A.,Bassini Hospital | Catapano A.L.,IRCCS Multimedica | Catapano A.L.,University of Milan
Atherosclerosis Supplements | Year: 2013

Epidemiological studies have established an association between high triglycerides (TG) plasma levels and increased cardiovascular risk. Increased TG levels, commonly coupled with low HDL-C levels, are common in high cardiovascular risk subjects including those with dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Management of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) includes lifestyle modification for mild-to-moderate HTG and pharmacological therapies for the treatment of high and very high TG levels. Among drugs, fibrates, nicotinic acid and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be considered. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce plasma TG levels by several mechanisms; beside the effects on TG, omega-3 can also influence the levels of other lipids and lipoproteins including HDL-C and LDL-C. Clinical trials have also shown that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is effective also when added in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs. These findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may be usefully considered for the management of high TG levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Pirillo A.,Bassini Hospital | Norata G.D.,University of Milan | Norata G.D.,Queen Mary, University of London | Catapano A.L.,IRCCS Multimedica | Catapano A.L.,University of Milan
Cardiology (Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Although the inverse relationship between plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and cardiovascular disease has been largely demonstrated, many observations have suggested that the assessment of HDL functionality might be more informative than a simple measurement of HDL-cholesterol plasma levels. HDLs are a class of structurally and functionally heterogeneous particles; in atherosclerosis-related diseases, changes in HDL subfraction levels and functions are frequently observed. Circulating levels of large HDL particles are decreased in dyslipidaemic conditions, while levels of small dense HDL particles are increased in patients with coronary heart disease. Furthermore, specific genetic defects in proteins involved in HDL metabolism significantly impact the distribution of HDL subpopulations. Finally, many drugs used for dyslipidaemia induce changes in HDL subfractions strictly related to cardiovascular disease. Although several methods exist to evaluate HDL subclass levels, most of them are not easily applicable in clinical practice, due to the costs and high variability. However, the possibility to measure the levels of specific HDL subfractions in patients with atherosclerosis-related diseases might help to better define their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Pirillo A.,Bassini Hospital | Catapano A.L.,Bassini Hospital | Norata G.D.,Bassini Hospital | Norata G.D.,University of Milan
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2015

During infection significant alterations in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein composition occur. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels increase, while reduced HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are observed. More importantly, endotoxemia modulates HDL composition and size: phospholipids are reduced as well as apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, whileserum amyloid A (SAA) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) dramatically increase, and, although the total HDL particle number does not change, a significant decrease in the number of small- and medium-size particles is observed. Low HDL-C levels inversely correlate with the severity of septic disease and associate with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response. HDL, as well as other plasma lipoproteins, can bind and neutralize Gramnegative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Gram-positive bacterial lipoteichoic acid (LTA), thus favoring the clearance of these products. HDLs are emerging also as a relevant player during parasitic infections, and a specific component of HDL, namely, apoL-1, confers innate immunity against trypanosome by favoring lysosomal swelling which kills the parasite. During virus infections, proteins associated with the modulation of cholesterol bioavailability in the lipid rafts such as ABCA1 and SR-BI have been shown to favor virus entry into the cells. Pharmacological studies support the benefit of recombinant HDL or apoA-I mimetics during bacterial infection, while apoL-1-nanobody complexes were tested for trypanosome infection. Finally, SR-BI antagonism represents a novel and forefront approach interfering with hepatitis C virus entry which is currently tested in clinical studies. From the coming years, we have to expect new and compelling observations further linking HDL to innate immunity and infections. © The Author(s) 2015.

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