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Bonvehi J.S.,Research and Development of Nederland Co. | Gutierrez A.L.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity (AA) of 19 propolis extracts prepared in different solvent (ethanol and propylene glycol). It was observed that all the samples tested had AA, although results varied considerably between extracts, i.e. 420-1,430 μmol Trolox/g (ABTS), 108-291 mg ascorbic acid/g (DPPH), and 1,573-4,669 μmol iron++ sulfate/g (FRAP). The ethanol may enhance the potency of the AA, and the correlation coefficient between total phenolic content (TPC) (200-340 mg/g propolis extracts) and AA was statistically significant. Total flavonoids ranged from 72 to 161 mg/g propolis extracts. The results indicate that TPC and flavonoids contributed to AA. © 2011 AOCS. Source


Bonvehi J.S.,Research and Development of Nederland Co. | Gutierrez A.L.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The antimicrobial activity of 19 propolis extracts prepared in different solvents (ethanol and propylene glycol) (EEP/PEP), was evaluated against some bacterial and fungal isolates using the agar-well diffusion method. It was verified that all the samples tested showed antimicrobial activity, although results varied considerably between samples. Results revealed that both types of propolis extracts showed highly sensitive antimicrobial action against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi at a concentration of 20% (Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisae) with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/ml, with a moderate effect against Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC from 17 to 26 mg/ml). To our knowledge, this is the first study showing elevated antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria [Salmonella enterica (MIC from 0.6 to 1.4 mg/ml)] and lesser activity against Helicobacter pylori (MIC from 6 to 14 mg/ml), while Escherichia coli was resistant. This concluded that the Basque propolis had a strong and dose-dependent activity against most of the microbial strains tested, while database comparison revealed that phenolic substances were responsible for this inhibition, regardless of their geographical origin and the solvent employed for extraction. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between EEP and PEP extracts. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Napoli C.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Fabiani M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Rizzo C.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Barral M.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development | And 13 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2015

The response to the emergence of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was the result of a decade of pandemic planning, largely centred on the threat of an avian influenza A(H5N1) pandemic. Based on a literature review, this study aims to define a set of new pandemic scenarios that could be used in case of a future influenza pandemic. A total of 338 documents were identified using a searching strategy based on seven combinations of keywords. Eighty-three of these documents provided useful information on the 13 virusrelated and health-system-related parameters initially considered for describing scenarios. Among these, four parameters were finally selected (clinical attack rate, case fatality rate, hospital admission rate, and intensive care admission rate) and four different levels of severity for each of them were set. The definition of six most likely scenarios results from the combination of four different levels of severity of the four final parameters (256 possible scenarios). Although it has some limitations, this approach allows for more flexible scenarios and hence it is far from the classic scenarios structure used for pandemic plans until 2009. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. Source


Abendano N.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development | Juste R.A.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development | Alonso-Hearn M.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of a chronic intestinal inflammation in ruminants named Johne's disease or paratuberculosis and a possible etiopathological agent of human Crohn's disease (CD). Analysis of macrophage transcriptomes in response to Map infection is expected to provide key missing information in the understanding of the role of this pathogen in establishing an inappropriate and persistent infection in a susceptible host and of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie the early phases of CD. In this paper we summarize transcriptomic studies of human and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and macrophages-like cell lines in vitro infected with Map. Most studies included in this paper consistently reported common gene expression signatures of bovine and human macrophages in response to Map such as enhanced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-6, which promote bacterial survival. Overexpression of IL-10 could be responsible for the Map-associated reduction in the expression of the proapoptotic TNF-α gene observed in bovine and human macrophages. © 2013 Naiara Abendaño et al. Source


Lopez S.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development | Gonzalez M.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development | Goldarazena A.,Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2011

Vespa velutina Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is reported for the first time from the Iberian Peninsula based on catches made during 2010 in Guipuzcoa and Navarra provinces (northern Spain). Notes about its current geographical distribution, biology, and economic and medical importance are also provided. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 OEPP/EPPO. Source

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