Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research
Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research
Asano S.,West Virginia University |
Chantler P.D.,West Virginia University |
Chantler P.D.,Clinical Translational Science Institute |
Barr T.L.,West Virginia University |
And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2016
Biomarker profiling is utilized to identify diagnostic and prognostic candidates for stroke. Clinical and preclinical biomarker data suggest altered circulating immune responses may illuminate the mechanisms of stroke recovery. However, the relationship between peripheral blood biomarker profile(s) and brain profiles following stroke remains elusive. Data show that neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicts stroke outcome. Neutrophils release Arginase 1 (ARG1) resulting in T lymphocyte suppression in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the cellular response to stroke may have implications for known biomarker profiles. Conversely, preclinical evidence suggests that upregulation of ARG1 in microglia is a marker of M2 macrophages and may influence neuroprotection. Comparing clinical and preclinical studies creates opportunities to explore the molecular mechanisms of blood and brain biomarker interactions in stroke. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research and West Virginia University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Aging and disease | Year: 2016
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The prognostic influence of body temperature on acute stroke in patients has been recently reported; however, hypothermia has confounded experimental results in animal stroke models. This work aimed to investigate how body temperature could prognose stroke severity as well as reveal a possible mitochondrial mechanism in the association of body temperature and stroke severity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compromises mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CVECs) and worsens murine experimental stroke. In this study, we report that LPS (0.1 mg/kg) exacerbates stroke infarction and neurological deficits, in the mean time LPS causes temporary hypothermia in the hyperacute stage during 6 hours post-stroke. Lower body temperature is associated with worse infarction and higher neurological deficit score in the LPS-stroke study. However, warming of the LPS-stroke mice compromises animal survival. Furthermore, a high dose of LPS (2 mg/kg) worsens neurological deficits, but causes persistent severe hypothermia that conceals the LPS exacerbation of stroke infarction. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor, rotenone, replicates the data profile of the LPS-stroke study. Moreover, we have confirmed that rotenone compromises mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in CVECs. Lastly, the pooled data analyses of a large sample size (n=353) demonstrate that stroke mice have lower body temperature compared to sham mice within 6 hours post-surgery; the body temperature is significantly correlated with stroke outcomes; linear regression shows that lower body temperature is significantly associated with higher neurological scores and larger infarct volume. We conclude that post-stroke body temperature predicts stroke severity and mitochondrial impairment in CVECs plays a pivotal role in this hypothermic response. These novel findings suggest that body temperature is prognostic for stroke severity in experimental stroke animal models and may have translational significance for clinical stroke patients - targeting endothelial mitochondria may be a clinically useful approach for stroke therapy.
Doll D.N.,West Virginia University |
Doll D.N.,Center for Neuroscience |
Doll D.N.,Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research |
Rellick S.L.,West Virginia University |
And 11 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2015
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is known to exacerbate ischemic brain injury; however, the mechanism is unknown. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of TNF-α on neurons with long exposures to high doses of TNF-α, which is not pathophysiologically relevant. We characterized the rapid effects of TNF-α on basal respiration, ATP production, and maximal respiration using pathophysiologically relevant, post-stroke concentrations of TNF-α. We observed a reduction in mitochondrial function as early as 1.5 h after exposure to low doses of TNF-α, followed by a decrease in cell viability in HT-22 cells and primary neurons. Subsequently, we used the HT-22 cell line to determine the mechanism by which TNF-α causes a rapid and profound reduction in mitochondrial function. Pre-treating with TNF-R1 antibody, but not TNF-R2 antibody, ameliorated the neurotoxic effects of TNF-α, indicating that TNF-α exerts its neurotoxic effects through TNF-R1. We observed an increase in caspase 8 activity and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential after exposure to TNF-α which resulted in a release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. These novel findings indicate for the first time that an acute exposure to pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-α has neurotoxic effects mediated by a rapid impairment of mitochondrial function. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.