Akhmadeeva L.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Tukhvatullin I.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Veytsman B.,George Mason University
Vision Research | Year: 2012
The role of serifs for the comprehension of printed text has been controversial in the literature. The analysis was often confounded by the fact that fonts used for comparison have many differences besides being serif or sans-serif. In this study we use fonts from the same foundry and meta family to assess the differences in reading comprehension for Cyrillic readers (n=238). The results show no difference in the speed of reading and the comprehension between the serif and sans-serif texts. This conclusion is consistent with the ecological hypothesis recently formulated for font sizes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Pokhrel P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa |
Masagutov R.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Kniazev V.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Sussman S.,University of Southern California
Journal of Primary Prevention | Year: 2012
National estimates suggest that the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use is higher among adolescents in Russia than among adolescents in the United States and other European countries. However, research on the psychosocial correlates of, as well as protective factors for, tobacco and alcohol use among Russian adolescents has been relatively limited. Research conducted primarily in the United States has shown that spirituality and health-as-a-value are plausible predictors of adolescent substance use. However, these constructs have not been extensively studied in regions outside the United States. In this study, we tested whether spirituality and heath-as-a-value had protective effects on past-month cigarette and alcohol use behaviors and next-year cigarette and alcohol use intentions among Russian high school students (N = 354, mean age = 15.7 years), after controlling for known predictors of adolescent substance use such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, peer substance use, and sensation seeking. We found a significant inverse relationship between health-as-a-value and recent cigarette and alcohol use as well as future cigarette use intentions. However, we did not find a significant relationship between spirituality and any substance use variables. Implications of these findings for school-based substance use prevention are discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Pokhrel P.,University of Southern California |
Sussman S.,University of Southern California |
Sun P.,University of Southern California |
Kniazer V.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Masagutov R.,Bashkir State Medical University
American Journal of Health Behavior | Year: 2010
Objective: To compare the relations of social self-control and sensation seeking with substance use across samples of US and Russian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 362 tenth-graders from Ufa, Russia, and 965 tenth-graders from California. Results: Lack of social self-control was significantly related with higher alcohol and hard drug use in the Russian sample and higher cigarette use in the US sample. Higher sensation-seeking showed significant associations with higher cigarette and alcohol use in the Russian sample and higher alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use in the US sample. Conclusion: As with US adolescents, prevention programs for Russian adolescents may also benefit from being tailored to higher sensation-seekers and including self-control skills training. Copyright © PNG Publications 2011 All Rights Reserved.
Baigil'dina A.A.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Islamgulov D.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology | Year: 2012
This paper studies the dependence of the level of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in the blood serum and the degree of endothelial desquamation on the frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles of the polymorphic locus rs1049970 of the VE-cadherin CDH5 gene during hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) of varying severity. The VE-cadherin concentration statistically significantly drops; the number of circulating endothelial cells increases in the dynamics of HFRS in all degrees of severity of the disease, most significantly, in the severe form with complications. A strong negative correlation is revealed between them. The frequency of occurrence of the homozygous genotype*T/*T is significantly high only in the severe form with complications. It was concluded that there is a correlation between the decrease in the VE-cadherin level in the blood serum and the increase in the vessel endothelial desquamation during moderate to severe and severe uncomplicated HFRS with decreased expression of VE-cadherin on endothelial cells. It may be that missense mutation c.1550T > C of the VE-cadherin gene in the severe form with complications increases the desquamation process of endothelial cells. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc.
Klen E.E.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Khaliullin F.A.,Bashkir State Medical University
Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011
By the reaction of 3,5-dibromo-1-(thiiran-2-ylmethyl)-1,2,4-triazole with aliphatic and aromatic amines 5-aminomethyl-substituted 2-bromo-5,6- dihydrothiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazoles were obtained. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Meshcheryakova S.A.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Kataev V.A.,Bashkir State Medical University
Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013
New thietanyl-substituted derivatives of pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and imidazole were synthesized. The alkylation of 6-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)- diones with 2-chloromethylthiirane in water involved the N1 atom of the pyrimidine ring and afforded 6-methyl-1-(thietan-3-yl)-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H) -diones. Under analogous conditions 6-aminopyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione gave rise to 6-(thietan-3-ylamino)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione. Unsymmetrically substituted 2-methyl-4(5)-nitro- and 5(4)-bromo-2-methyl-4(5)-nitro-1H- imidazoles reacted with 2-chloromethylthiirane to produce mixtures of isomeric 2-methyl-4(5)-nitro-1-(thietan-3-yl)-1H-imidazoles and 5(4)-bromo-2-methyl-4(5)- nitro-1-(thietan-3-yl)-1H-imidazoles. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Tayupova I.M.,Bashkir State Medical University
Voprosy Pitaniia | Year: 2015
In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.
Amirova V.R.,Bashkir State Medical University
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2014
The objective: A comparative analysis of clinical effectiveness of various types of feeding preterm infants. Patients and methods: The study included 60 infants, who received treatment in an interregional perinatal centre. Four groups were singled out: group 1-11 breastfed infants; 2-15 infants receiving breast milk fortified with «PreNAN FM85®»; 3-19 infants receiving a combination of breastfeeding and a specialized formula for premature infants; 4-15 formula-fed infants. We performed clinical observation (assessment of anthropometric parameters, general state of infants, clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunctions, allergic reactions) and calculated the duration of their stay at hospital. Results: As has been found, infants receiving breast milk fortified with «PreNAN FM85®» have higher rates of body mass increment (19.7 ± 0.9 g/kg/day) as compared with exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants or infants receiving mixed feeding. No significant differences between the groups of study in parameters of weekly increment of the body height, head and breast circumferences were found. Good tolerance of enteral nutrition was noted in infants of all groups. Conclusion: Under modern conditions, supplementation of human breast milk with fortifiers seems to be the most physiological way of optimizing nutrition for infants with extremely low and very low birth weight.
Meshcheryakova S.A.,Bashkir State Medical University
Russian Journal of General Chemistry | Year: 2014
A new approach to prepare 2-chloroacetamides has been developed, based on the reaction of chloroacetyl chloride with excess of secondary amines. Alkylation of 6-methyl-1-(thiethan-3-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione with the synthesized 2-chloroacetamides in the presence of potassium carbonate has afforded N 3-acetamido-substituted 6-methyl-1-(thiethan-3-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Meshcheryakova S.A.,Bashkir State Medical University |
Kataev V.A.,Bashkir State Medical University
Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014
Reaction of 2-[6-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1-(thietan-3-yl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydropyrimidin-3-yl]acetic acid hydrazide with β-dicarbonyl compounds proceeds regioselectively; the structure of the formed hydrazones is governed by the structure of the β-dicarbonyl reaction component. The reaction with acetyl- and propionylacetone afforded 3-[2-(5-alkyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- oxoethyl]-6-methyl-1-(thietan-3-yl)pyrimidin-2,4(1H,3H)-diones, with aroylacetones, 5-hydroxypyrazoline derivatives which are present in DMSO solutions in E′ conformation with respect to the amide bond. The condensation products with acetoacetic acid derivatives have a linear structure and consist of mixtures of E,Z- and E′,Z′-isomers owing to the geometric and conformational isomerism. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.