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Aanes H.,BasAM | Winata C.L.,Genome Institute of Singapore | Lin C.H.,Genome Institute of Singapore | Chen J.P.,Genome Institute of Singapore | And 11 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2011

Maternally deposited mRNAs direct early development before the initiation of zygotic transcription during mid-blastula transition (MBT). To study mechanisms regulating this developmental event in zebrafish, we applied mRNA deep sequencing technology and generated comprehensive information and valuable resources on transcriptome dynamics during early embryonic (egg to early gastrulation) stages. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis documented at least 8000 maternal genes and identified the earliest cohort of zygotic transcripts. We determined expression levels of maternal and zygotic transcripts with the highest resolution possible using mRNA-seq and clustered them based on their expression pattern. We unravel delayed polyadenylation in a large cohort of maternal transcripts prior to the MBT for the first time in zebrafish. Blocking polyadenylation of these transcripts confirms their role in regulating development from the MBT onward. Our study also identified a large number of novel transcribed regions in annotated and unannotated regions of the genome, which will facilitate reannotation of the zebrafish genome. We also identified splice variants with an estimated frequency of 50%-60%. Taken together, our data constitute a useful genomic information and valuable transcriptome resource for gene discovery and for understanding the mechanisms of early embryogenesis in zebrafish. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Ostrup O.,University of Oslo | Reiner A.H.,University of Oslo | Alestrom P.,BasAM | Collas P.,University of Oslo
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2014

Early embryo development constitutes a unique opportunity to study acquisition of epigenetic marks, including histone methylation. This study investigates the in vivo function and specificity of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), a promising anti-cancer drug that targets polycomb complex genes. One- to two-cell stage embryos were cultured with DZNep, and subsequently evaluated at the post-mid blastula transition stage for H3K27me3, H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 occupancy and enrichment at promoters using ChIP-chip microarrays. DZNep affected promoter enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, whereas H3K4me3 remained stable. Interestingly, DZNep induced a loss of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 from a substantial number of promoters but did not prevent de novo acquisition of these marks on others, indicating gene-specific targeting of its action. Loss/gain of H3K27me3 on promoters did not result in changes in gene expression levels until 24. h post-fertilization. In contrast, genes gaining H3K9me3 displayed strong and constant down-regulation upon DZNep treatment. H3K9me3 enrichment on these gene promoters was observed not only in the proximal area as expected, but also over the transcription start site. Altered H3K9me3 profiles were associated with severe neuronal and cranial phenotypes at day 4-5 post-fertilization. Thus, DZNep was shown to affect enrichment patterns of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 at promoters in a gene-specific manner. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Aanes H.,BasAM
Briefings in functional genomics | Year: 2014

Recent years advances in high-throughput sequencing have improved our understanding of how transcripts regulate early vertebrate development. Here, we review the transcriptome dynamics and diversity during early stages of zebrafish embryogenesis. Transcriptome dynamics is characterized by different patterns of mRNA degradation, activation of dormant transcripts and onset of transcription. Several studies have shown a striking diversity of both coding and non-coding transcripts. However, in the aftermath of this immense increase in data, functional studies of both protein-coding and non-coding transcripts are lagging behind. We anticipate that the forthcoming years will see studies relying on different high-throughput sequencing technologies and genomic tools developed for zebrafish embryos to further pin down yet un-annotated transcript-function relationships.

Lindeman L.C.,University of Oslo | Reiner A.H.,University of Oslo | Mathavan S.,Genome Institute of Singapore | Alestrom P.,BasAM | Collas P.,University of Oslo
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background:Uncovering epigenetic states by chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) has significantly contributed to the understanding of gene regulation at the genome-scale level. Many studies have been carried out in mice and humans; however limited high-resolution information exists to date for non-mammalian vertebrate species. Principal Findings:We report a 2.1-million feature high-resolution Nimblegen tiling microarray for ChIP-chip interrogations of epigenetic states in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The array covers 251 megabases of the genome at 92 base-pair resolution. It includes ~15 kb of upstream regulatory sequences encompassing all RefSeq promoters, and over 5 kb in the 59 end of coding regions. We identify with high reproducibility, in a fibroblast cell line, promoters enriched in H3K4me3, H3K27me3 or co-enriched in both modifications. ChIP-qPCR and sequential ChIP experiments validate the ChIP-chip data and support the co-enrichment of trimethylated H3K4 and H3K27 on a subset of genes. H3K4me3- and/or H3K27me3-enriched genes are associated with distinct transcriptional status and are linked to distinct functional categories. Conclusions: We have designed and validated for the scientific community a comprehensive high-resolution tiling microarray for investigations of epigenetic states in zebrafish, a widely used developmental and disease model organism. © 2010 Lindeman et al.

Andersen I.S.,University of Oslo | Ostrup O.,University of Oslo | Lindeman L.C.,University of Oslo | Aanes H.,BasAM | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

The zebrafish developmental transcription program is determined by temporal post-translational histone modifications established in a step-wise and combinatorial manner on specific promoters around the time of zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Here, we characterize this increasing epigenetic complexity before, during and after ZGA. H3K4me3/H3K27me3 co-enrichment prevails over H3K4me3/H3K9me3 at the time of ZGA. Whereas most H3K4me3-marked promoters are devoid of transcriptionally repressive H3K9me3 or H3K27me3, the latter marks rarely occur in absence of H3K4me3. On co-enriched genomic regions, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can overlap regardless of H3K9me3 enrichment, but H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 are mutually exclusive. H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 may however overlap only when H3K27me3 also marks the overlapping domain, suggesting that H3K27me3 may modulate chromatin states. On metagenes, H3K27me3 enrichment correlates with local alteration in H3K4me3 density, and co-enrichment in H3K9me3 is linked to alterations in both H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 profiles. This suggests physical proximity of these marks and supports a view of existence of bi- or tri-valent chromatin domains. Thus enrichment in trimethylated H3K9 or H3K27 is associated with local remodeling of chromatin manifested by changes in H3K4me3 density. We propose that metagenes can provide information on the multivalency of chromatin sates. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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