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Geelong West, Australia

Friedman N.D.,Barwon Health | Temkin E.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center | Carmeli Y.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2016

Antibacterial therapy is one of the most important medical developments of the twentieth century; however, the spread of resistance in healthcare settings and in the community threatens the enormous gains made by the availability of antibiotic therapy. Infections caused by resistant bacteria lead to up to two-fold higher rates of adverse outcomes compared with similar infections caused by susceptible strains. These adverse outcomes may be clinical or economic and reflect primarily the failure or delay of antibiotic treatment. The magnitude of these adverse outcomes will be more pronounced as disease severity, strain virulence, or host vulnerability increases. The negative impacts of antibacterial resistance can be measured at the patient level by increased morbidity and mortality, at the healthcare level by increased resource utilization, higher costs and reduced hospital activity and at the society level by antibiotic treatment guidelines favouring increasingly broad-spectrum empiric therapy. In this review we will discuss the negative impact of antibiotic resistance on patients, the healthcare system and society. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Cardoso T.,University of Porto | Almeida M.,Hospital de Braga | Friedman N.D.,Barwon Health | Aragao I.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Ten years after the first proposal, a consensus definition of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) has not been reached, preventing the development of specific treatment recommendations. A systematic review of all definitions of HCAI used in clinical studies is made. Methods: The search strategy focused on an HCAI definition. MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for articles published from earliest achievable data until November 2012. Abstracts from scientific meetings were searched for relevant abstracts along with a manual search of references from reports, earlier reviews and retrieved studies. Results: The search retrieved 49,405 references: 15,311 were duplicates and 33,828 were excluded based on title and abstract. Of the remaining 266, 43 met the inclusion criteria. The definition more frequently used was the initial proposed in 2002 - an infection present at hospital admission or within 48 hours of admission in patients that fulfilled any of the following criteria: received intravenous therapy at home, wound care or specialized nursing care in the previous 30 days; attended a hospital or hemodialysis clinic or received intravenous chemotherapy in the previous 30 days; were hospitalized in an acute care hospital for ≥2 days in the previous 90 days, resided in a nursing home or long-term care facility. Additional criteria founded in other studies were: immunosuppression, active or metastatic cancer, previous radiation therapy, transfer from another care facility, elderly or physically disabled persons who need healthcare, previous submission to invasive procedures, surgery performed in the last 180 days, family member with a multi-drug resistant microorganism and recent treatment with antibiotics. Conclusions: Based on the evidence gathered we conclude that the definition initially proposed is widely accepted. In a future revision, recent invasive procedures, hospitalization in the last year or previous antibiotic treatment should be considered for inclusion in the definition. The role of immunosuppression in the definition of HCAI still requires ongoing discussion. © 2014 Cardoso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Schoch M.,Deakin University | Smith V.,Barwon Health
Renal Society of Australasia Journal | Year: 2012

There is increased awareness regarding the benefits of ultrasound for vascular access surveillance and guided cannulation in haemodialysis. However, finding time to train staff whilst working within the clinical setting is challenging. In 2009 a workshop was introduced in Victoria to provide a platform for nursing staff to learn advanced skills in surveillance and cannulation in a safe, supportive environment. The workshop covered topics such as: assessment and cannulation; surgical perspectives in vascular access; radiological perspectives in vascular access; surveillance and monitoring; cannulation competency package; antegrade/antegrade cannulation; and introduction to ultrasound plus five hours of practical sessions. Feedback from the workshop over the past three years has been positive, and staff have benefited from the both the theoretical and clinical components of the workshop. The success of this workshop highlights the demand for continuing education within the renal workforce.


Ng L.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Talman P.,Barwon Health | Khan F.,University of Melbourne
International Journal of Rehabilitation Research | Year: 2011

Motor neurone disease (MND) places considerable burden upon patients and caregivers. This is the first study, which describes the disability profile and healthcare needs for persons with MND (pwMND) in an Australian sample from the perspective of the patients and caregivers to identify current gaps in the knowledge and service provision. A prospective cross-sectional community survey of pwMND (n=44) and their caregivers (n=37) was conducted, to determine symptoms and problems affecting daily living. Standardized assessments were carried out to determine the disease severity for stratification purposes, service needs and gaps. The mean age was 61 years with more men affected than women (3 : 2). The severity of disease was high (n=18; 41%) based on the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. Despite the high level of disability, 11 (25%) solely relied on their families for all assistance. Caregivers were mostly partners (mean age: 57 years). PwMND reported more pain, emotional disturbance and spasticity/cramps/spasms. Caregivers focused more on psychosocial issues. Nineteen (43%) pwMND reported gaps in the service in rehabilitation therapy and respite. Significantly proportionally, more caregivers (n=19; 51%) reported gaps particularly in the area of psychosocial support. The gaps identified in the MND care should be prioritized for future service development using the 'neuropalliative rehabilitation' model of care. For improved consensus of care and communication among treating clinicians, the framework of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health should be explored in this population. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Gill S.D.,Barwon Health | De Morton N.A.,La Trobe University | Mc Burney H.,Monash University
Clinical Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess and compare the validity of six physical function measures in people awaiting hip or knee joint replacement. Design: Eighty-two people awaiting hip or knee replacement were assessed using six physical function measures including the WOMAC Function scale, SF-36 Physical Function scale, SF-36 Physical Component Summary scale, Patient Specific Functional Scale, 30-second chair stand test, and 50-foot timed walk. Validity was assessed using a head-to-head comparison design. Results: Convergent validity was demonstrated with significant correlations between most measures (Spearman's rho 0.22 to 0.71). The Patient Specific Functional Scale had the lowest correlations with other measures of physical function. Discriminant validity was demonstrated with low correlations between mental health and physical function scores (Spearman's rho -0.12 to 0.33). Only the WOMAC Function scale, 30-second chair stand test, and 50-foot timed walk demonstrated known groups validity when scores for participants who walked with a gait aid were compared with those who did not. Standardized response means and Guyatt's responsiveness indexes indicated that the SF-36 was the least responsive measure. Conclusions: For those awaiting joint replacement surgery of the hip or knee, the current investigation found that the WOMAC Function scale, 30-second chair stand test, and 50-foot timed walk demonstrated the most evidence of validity. The Patient Specific Functional Scale might complement other measures by capturing a different aspect of physical function. © The Author(s) 2012.

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