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Hinton Charterhouse, United Kingdom

Fleming S.,Barts and the London NHS Trust | Bird R.,Colchester NHS Trust | Ratnasingham K.,Barts Institute of Cancer | Sarker S.-J.,Barts Cancer Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnosis and treatment with the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines are vital, leading to the development of Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST). Methods: A retrospective study carried out from January 2007-2008 on all patients who presented with BAT and underwent FAST scan. All patients subsequently had a CT scan within 2 h of admission or a laparotomy within two days. The presence of intra-peritoneal free fluid was interpreted as positive. Results: 100 patients with BAT presented; 71 had complete data. The accuracy of FAST in BAT was 59.2%; in these 31 (43.7%) were confirmed by CT and 11 (15%) by laparotomy. There were 29 (40.8%) inaccurate FAST scans, all confirmed by CT. FAST had a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI: 0.75-0.99) and sensitivity of 46.2% (95% CI: 0.33-0.60). Positive Predictive Value of 0.96 (0.81-0.99) and Negative Predictive Value of 0.39 (0.26-0.54). Fisher's exact test shows positive FAST is significantly associated with Intra-abdominal pathology (p = 0.001). Cohen's chance corrected agreement was 0.3. 21 out of 28 who underwent laparotomies had positive FAST results indicating accuracy of 75% (95% CI: 57%-87%). Conclusion: Patients with false negative scans, requiring therapeutic laparotomy is concerning. In unstable patients FAST may help in triaging and identifying those requiring laparotomy. Negative FAST scans do not exclude abdominal injury. Further randomised control trials are recommended if the role of FAST is to be better understood. © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Source

Cunha P.O.R.,Barts Institute of Cancer | Ornstein M.,University of London | Jones J.L.,Barts Institute of Cancer
Breast Care | Year: 2010

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) now represents up to 20% of breast cancer cases, yet its behaviour is still poorly understood. Morphological classifications go some way to predicting prognosis, but more sophisticated approaches are required to better tailor therapy to the individual. A number of biological molecules have been identified that appear to relate to prognosis and, in model systems, promote progression to invasive disease. Some of these, such as COX-2, provide real therapeutic opportunities, whilst other marker combinations are showing promise in categorising women according to risk. Gene expression studies have led to an emerging molecular classification of invasive breast cancer, and it is now evident that at least some of these molecular subtypes can be identified at the pre-invasive stage. The difference in frequency of these subtypes between DCIS and invasive cancer may hold clues as to the biological mechanisms underpinning disease transition. It is increasingly clear that the host microenvironment can have a major impact on disease behaviour, and as well as acting as potential predictive factors, the altered microenvironment phenotype also offers novel therapeutic opportunities. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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