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Bartholomew JoJo "Bart" Simpson is a fictional character in the animated television series The Simpsons and part of the Simpson family. He is voiced by actress Nancy Cartwright and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Bart was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters. While the rest of the characters were named after Groening's family members, Bart's name was an anagram of the word brat. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three years, the Simpson family received its own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989.At ten years old, Bart is the eldest child and only son of Homer and Marge, and the brother of Lisa and Maggie. His birth date is formally stated in season 26 episode "Simpsorama" as February 23 but this date is contradicted in earlier episodes. Bart's most prominent character traits are his mischievousness, rebelliousness and disrespect for authority. He has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons, including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books; he has also inspired an entire line of merchandise. In casting, Nancy Cartwright originally planned to audition for the role of Lisa, while Yeardley Smith tried out for Bart. Smith's voice was too high for a boy, so she was given the role of Lisa. Cartwright found that Lisa was not interesting at the time, so instead auditioned for Bart, which she thought was a better role. Hallmarks of the character include his chalkboard gags in the opening sequence; his prank calls to Moe; and his catchphrases "Eat my shorts", "¡Ay, caramba!", and "Don't have a cow, man!"During the first two seasons of The Simpsons , Bart was the show's breakout character and "Bartmania" ensued. Bart Simpson T-shirts sporting various slogans and catchphrases became popular, selling at a rate of a million per day at their peak. The song "Do the Bartman" became a number one charting single and the seventh best-selling song of 1991 in the United Kingdom. Bart's rebellious attitude and pride at underachieving caused many parents and educators to cast him as a bad role model for children. A T-shirt reading "I'm Bart Simpson. Who the hell are you?" was banned in several public schools. Around the third season, the series started to focus more on the family as a group, although Bart remains one of the most prominent characters on the series. Time named Bart one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century, and he was named "entertainer of the year" in 1990 by Entertainment Weekly. Nancy Cartwright has won several awards for voicing Bart, including a Primetime Emmy Award in 1992 and an Annie Award in 1995. In 2000, Bart, along with the rest of his family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Wikipedia.

Vitolins M.Z.,BART
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Hot flashes occur in approximately 80% of androgen-deprived men. Few intervention studies have been conducted to relieve hot flashes in men. Eligible androgen-deprived men were randomly assigned to one of four daily regimens (2 × 2 factorial design) for 12 weeks: milk protein powder and placebo pill, venlafaxine and milk protein powder, soy protein powder and placebo pill, or venlafaxine and soy protein powder. The primary end point was hot flash symptom severity score (HFSSS), defined as number of hot flashes times severity. The secondary end point was quality of life (QoL), assessed by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate. In all, 120 men age 46 to 91 years participated. Most were white (78%) and overweight or obese (83%). Toxicity was minimal. Neither venlafaxine nor soy protein alone or in combination had a significant effect on HFSSS. Soy protein, but not venlafaxine, improved measures of QoL. In androgen-deprived men, neither venlafaxine nor soy proved effective in reducing hot flashes. Interventions that appear effective for decreasing hot flashes in women may not always turn out to be effective in men. Source

Yantchev V.,Uppsala University | Plessky V.,BART
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

2D composite grating building blocks with hexagonal symmetry are proposed and analyzed as efficient reflectors and transducers in the design of low loss surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators. Eigen-frequency and frequency response finite element analyses are used to study the propagation and excitation characteristics of SAWs in the 2D composite structures. The proposed structures have the advantage of being compatible with the planar SAW technology, while introducing design principles reminiscent to the semiconductor devices. More specifically, the frequency bandgap characteristics of the various resonator building blocks can be adjusted so that losses related to the SAW diffraction, impedance mismatch, and parasitic SAW radiation from the electrical contacts can be suppressed. Three distinct types SAW resonant topologies employing 2D gratings are deduced from the analytical results. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Powles T.,BART | Albers P.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf
Clinical Genitourinary Cancer | Year: 2012

Targeted therapy has changed the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, it is unclear if patients need to start systemic therapy immediately or if treatment can be deferred. Identification of the appropriate time to discontinue therapy is also uncertain. We reviewed treatment guidelines and trials evaluating targeted agents for mRCC to assess the evidence regarding commencing and discontinuing therapy for mRCC. Guidelines recommend that patients with mRCC receive targeted agents; however, they do not address when therapy should start. Risk factors based on Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) or Heng criteria can be used to stratify patients. MSKCC prognostic factors include Karnofsky performance status (< 80%), high lactate dehydrogenase levels, low hemoglobin levels, high serum calcium levels, and time from diagnosis to start of therapy < 1 year. In patients with poor and intermediate risk (< 3 and 1-2 factors, respectively) and/or with high tumor burden, targeted therapy should commence as soon as possible. In patients with MSKCC good-risk disease and few disease symptoms, active surveillance may be appropriate. Regular monitoring is required so that treatment can be initiated upon evidence of active disease. Second-line therapy is usually commenced after disease progression; however, because of the limitations of radiologic assessment of response to targeted therapies, other factors may need to be considered to guide decisions regarding stopping or switching therapy. These include scenarios such as a mixed response to therapy. For selected patients at favorable risk, active surveillance may be feasible; however, strict monitoring is required. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hayes-Conroy J.,BART | Hayes-Conroy A.,Temple University
Emotion, Space and Society | Year: 2013

The 'alternative food' movement (encompassing both organic and local foods) has been critiqued for its racial and economic homogeneity, as well as its focus on individual choice and 'correct' knowledge. Nevertheless, the movement continues to gain in popularity within certain segments of the North American population (especially among white, middle class residents). In recent years, alternative food has also made its way into public schools - most notably through the guise of healthy eating. School Garden and Cooking Programs (SGCPs) are one way in which a more diverse demographic can become exposed to the claims, practices and tastes of alternative food. Program advocates claim that such exposure equalizes the student body, by giving all students access to healthy food. This paper examines this claim through a political ecology of the body (PEB) framework. Particularly, we use theories of the material, emotional body to explore how motivation to eat 'healthy' and 'alternative' food is a matter of affective relation, emerging differentially from a rhizome of structural and haphazard forces. By relating alternative food and healthy eating to research on emotion and affect, we expand upon the traditions of political ecology in ways that help to stretch the field into issues of bodies and health. © 2011 . Source

Boon B.,BART
Analysis and Design of Marine Structures - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Marine Structures, MARSTRUCT 2013 | Year: 2013

In 1972-1975 yard Gusto designed and built the semi-submersible pipe-lay barge Viking Piper. The vessel after nearly 40 years is still successfully in operation, now called Castoro Sette owned by Saipem, Italy.When built the design was very novel in several respects. No rules or regulations existed. Gusto had themselves to set design methods and criteria in consultation with the classification society. As the vessel by far outsized the fabrication capacities of the yard innovative new construction methods were implemented with all the impact this had on the structural design. The paper reviews the original structural design approach. The 1970s design is compared with today's standards and practice. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group. Source

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