Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies

San Antonio, TX, United States

Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies

San Antonio, TX, United States
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Yu Z.,Oregon State University | Wang R.,Oregon State University | Fok W.C.,University of Oklahoma | Coles A.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 3 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Dietary restriction (DR) is the gold standard intervention used to delay aging, and much recent research has focused on the identification of possible DR mimetics. Energy sensing pathways, including insulin/IGF1 signaling, sirtuins, and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), have been proposed as pathways involved in the antiaging actions of DR, and compounds that affect these pathways have been suggested to act as DR mimetics, including metformin (insulin/IGF1 signaling), resveratrol (sirtuins), and rapamycin (mTOR). Rapamycin is a promising DR mimetic because it significantly increases both health span and life span in mice. Unfortunately, rapamycin also leads to some negative effects, foremost among which is the induction of insulin resistance, potentially limiting its translation into humans. To begin clarifying the mechanism(s) involved in insulin resistance induced by rapamycin, we compared several aspects of liver metabolism in mice treated with DR or rapamycin for 6 months. Our data suggest that although both DR and rapamycin inhibit lipogenesis, activate lipolysis, and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids, only DR further activates β-oxidation of the fatty acids leading to the production of ketone bodies. © 2014 The Author.

Civitarese A.E.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Civitarese A.E.,Arizona State University | Civitarese A.E.,Mayo Medical School | MacLean P.S.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 18 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2010

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and aging are characterized by insulin resistance and impaired mitochondrial energetics. In lower organisms, remodeling by the protease pcp1 (PARL ortholog) maintains the function and lifecycle of mitochondria. We examined whether variation in PARL protein content is associated with mitochondrial abnormalities and insulin resistance. PARL mRNA and mitochondrial mass were both reduced in elderly subjects and in subjects with T2DM. Muscle knockdown of PARL in mice resulted in malformed mitochondrial cristae, lower mitochondrial content, decreased PGC1α protein levels, and impaired insulin signaling. Suppression of PARL protein in healthy myotubes lowered mitochondrial mass and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and increased reactive oxygen species production. We propose that lower PARL expression may contribute to the mitochondrial abnormalities seen in aging and T2DM. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Walsh M.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Walsh M.E.,Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies | Bhattacharya A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Bhattacharya A.,Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies | And 2 more authors.
Muscle and Nerve | Year: 2015

Introduction: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been implicated in neurogenic muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors might have beneficial effects are not defined. Methods: We used sciatic nerve crush to determine the effect of butyrate on denervation-induced gene expression and oxidative stress. Results: Butyrate treatment initiated 3 weeks before injury and continued 1 week after injury increases histone acetylation and reduces muscle atrophy after nerve crush. Butyrate delivered only after nerve crush similarly prevented muscle atrophy. Butyrate had no effect on the increase in histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) protein levels following nerve crush but prevented the increase in expression of myogenin, MuRF1, and atrogin-1. Butyrate did not affect mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, but it increased antioxidant enzyme activity, reduced proteasome activity, and reduced oxidative damage following nerve injury. Conclusions: These data suggest that HDAC inhibitors are promising pharmacological agents for treating neurogenic muscle atrophy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Muscogiuri G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Salmon A.B.,Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies | Salmon A.B.,Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center | Aguayo-Mazzucato C.,Joslin Diabetes Center | And 13 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2013

Oxidative stress has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether oxidative damage is a cause or a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities present in diabetic subjects. The goal of this study was to determine whether inducing oxidative damage through genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leads to abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We studied SOD1-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Glucose tolerance was evaluated with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was quantitated with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. b-Cell function was determined with the hyperglycemic clamp and morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of SOD1 caused glucose intolerance, which was associated with reduced in vivo b-cell insulin secretion and decreased b-cell volume. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not significantly altered in SOD1-null mice. High-fat diet caused glucose intolerance in WT mice but did not further worsen the glucose intolerance observed in standard chow-fed SOD1-null mice. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress per se does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and demonstrate that oxidative stress caused by SOD1 ablation leads to glucose intolerance secondary to b-cell dysfunction. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Liu M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Xiang R.,UTHSCSA | Wilk S.A.,UTHSCSA | Zhang N.,UTHSCSA | And 17 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2012

The antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects of adiponectin make it a desirable drug target for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the adiponectin-based drug development approach turns out to be difficult due to extremely high serum levels of this adipokine. On the other hand, a significant correlation between adiponectin multimerization and its insulin-sensitizing effects has been demonstrated, suggesting a promising alternative therapeutic strategy. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein in fat (fDsbA-L) exhibited increased levels of total and the high-molecular-weight form of adiponectin compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. The fDsbA-L mice also displayed resistance to diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis compared with WT control mice. The protective effects of DsbA-L overexpression on diet-induced insulin resistance, but not increased body weight and fat cell size, were significantly decreased in adiponectin-deficient fDsbA-L mice (fDsbA-L/Ad-/-). In addition, the fDsbA-L/Ad -/- mice displayed greater activity and energy expenditure compared with adiponectin knockout mice under a high-fat diet. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DsbA-L protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance through adiponectin-dependent and independent mechanisms. In addition, upregulation of DsbA-L could be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.

Edrey Y.H.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Edrey Y.H.,Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies | Medina D.X.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Gaczynska M.,Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies | And 8 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2013

Amyloid beta (Aβ) is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an integral component of both neural toxicity and plaque formation. Brains of the longest-lived rodents, naked mole-rats (NMRs) approximately 32 years of age, had levels of Aβ similar to those of the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD. Interestingly, there was no evidence of extracellular plaques, nor was there an age-related increase in Aβ levels in the individuals examined (2-20+ years). The NMR Aβ peptide showed greater homology to the human sequence than to the mouse sequence, differing by only 1 amino acid from the former. This subtle difference led to interspecies differences in aggregation propensity but not neurotoxicity; NMR Aβ was less prone to aggregation than human Aβ. Nevertheless, both NMR and human Aβ were equally toxic to mouse hippocampal neurons, suggesting that Aβ neurotoxicity and aggregation properties were not coupled. Understanding how NMRs acquire and tolerate high levels of Aβ with no plaque formation could provide useful insights into AD, and may elucidate protective mechanisms that delay AD progression. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Blanco C.L.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Liang H.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Liang H.,The Texas Institute | Joya-Galeana J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 7 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Hyperglycemia, a prevalent condition in premature infants, is thought to be a consequence of incomplete suppression of endogenous glucose production and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in peripheral tissues. However, the molecular basis for these conditions remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that the insulin transduction pathway is underdeveloped with prematurity, fetal baboons were delivered, anesthetized, and euthanized at 125 d gestational age (GA), 140 d GA, or near term at 175 d GA. Vastus lateralis muscle and liver tissues were obtained, and protein content of insulin signaling molecules [insulin receptor (IR)-β, IR substate-1, p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and AS160] and glucose transporters (GLUT)-1 and GLUT4 was measured by Western blotting. Muscle from 125 d GA baboons had markedly reduced GLUT1 protein content (16% of 140 d GA and9%of 175 d GA fetuses). GLUT4 and AS160 also were severely reduced in 125 d GA fetal muscle (43% of 175 d GA and 35% of 175 d GA, respectively). In contrast, the protein content of IR-β, IR substate-1, and Akt was elevated by 1.7-, 5.2-, and 1.9-fold, respectively, in muscle from 125 d GA baboons when compared with 175 d GA fetuses. No differences were found in the content of insulin signaling proteins in liver. In conclusion, significant gestational differences exist in the protein content of several insulin signaling proteins in the muscle of fetal baboons. Reduced muscle content of key glucose transport-regulating proteins (GLUT1, GLUT4, AS160) could play a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal hyperglycemia and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

Chiao Y.A.,San Antonio Cardiovascular Proteomics Center | Chiao Y.A.,Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies | Chiao Y.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ramirez T.A.,San Antonio Cardiovascular Proteomics Center | And 17 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2012

AimsAge-related diastolic dysfunction has been attributed to an increased passive stiffness, which is regulated by extracellular matrix (ECM). We recently showed that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an ECM mediator, increases in the left ventricle (LV) with age. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to determine the role of MMP-9 in cardiac ageing.Methods and resultsWe compared LV function in young (6-9 months), middle-aged (12-15 months), old (18-24 months) and senescent (26-34 months) wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 null mice (n ≥ 12/group). All groups had similar fractional shortenings and aortic peak velocities, indicating that systolic function was not altered by ageing or MMP-9 deletion. The mitral ratios of early to late diastolic filling velocities were reduced in old and senescent WT compared with young controls, and this reduction was attenuated in MMP-9 null mice. Concomitantly, the increase in LV collagen content was reduced in MMP-9 null mice (n = 5-6/group). To dissect the mechanisms of these changes, we evaluated the mRNA expression levels of 84 ECM and adhesion molecules by real-time qPCR (n = 6/group). The expression of pro-fibrotic periostin and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) increased with senescence, as did transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced protein levels and Smad signalling, and these increases were blunted by MMP-9 deletion. In senescence, MMP-9 deletion also resulted in a compensatory increase in MMP-8.ConclusionMMP-9 deletion attenuates the age-related decline in diastolic function, in part by reducing TGF-β signalling-induced periostin and CTGF expression and increasing MMP-8 expression to regulate myocardial collagen turnover and deposition. © 2012 The Author.

Blanco C.L.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Moreira A.G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | McGill-Vargas L.L.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Anzueto D.G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) negatively alters the insulin signal transduction pathway and has differing effects on the fetus according to gestational age (GA) at exposure. Twenty-three fetal baboons were delivered from 23 healthy, nondiabetic mothers. Twelve preterm (0.67 GA) and 11 near-term (0.95 GA) baboons were killed immediately after delivery. Half of the pregnant baboons at each gestation received two doses of i.m. betamethasone 24 h apart (170 mg/kg) before delivery, while the other half received no intervention.Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained from postnatal animals tomeasure the protein content andgene expressionof insulin receptor β (IRβ INSR), IRβ Tyr 1361 phosphorylation (pIRβ), IR substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation (pIRS1), p85 subunit of PI3-kinase, AKT (protein kinase B), phospho-AKT Ser473 (pAKT), AKT1, AKT2, and glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4). Skeletal muscle from preterm baboons exposed to GCs had markedly reduced protein content of AKTand AKT1 (respectively, 73 and 72% from 0.67 GA control, P<0.001); IRβ and pIRβ were also decreased (respectively, 94 and 85%, P<0.01) in themuscle of premature GC-exposed fetuses but not intermfetuses. GLUT1 and GLUT4 tended to increase with GC exposure in preterm animals (PZ0.09), while GLUT4 increased sixfold in term animals after exposure to GC (P<0.05). In conclusion, exposure to a single course of antenatal GCs during fetal life alters the insulin signaling pathway in fetal muscle in a manner dependent on the stage of gestation. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.

Edrey Y.H.,City College of New York | Edrey Y.H.,Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies | Casper D.,Yeshiva University | Huchon D.,Tel Aviv University | And 8 more authors.
Aging Cell | Year: 2012

Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), the longest-lived rodents, live 7-10 times longer than similarly sized mice and exhibit normal activities for approximately 75% of their lives. Little is known about the mechanisms that allow them to delay the aging process and live so long. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) signaling is critical for normal brain function during both development and adulthood. We hypothesized that long-lived species will maintain higher levels of NRG-1 and that this contributes to their sustained brain function and concomitant maintenance of normal activity. We monitored the levels of NRG-1 and its receptor ErbB4 in H. glaber at different ages ranging from 1day to 26years and found that levels of NRG-1 and ErbB4 were sustained throughout development and adulthood. In addition, we compared seven rodent species with widely divergent (4-32year) maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) and found that at a physiologically equivalent age, the longer-lived rodents had higher levels of NRG-1 and ErbB4. Moreover, phylogenetic independent contrast analyses revealed that this significant strong correlation between MLSP and NRG-1 levels was independent of phylogeny. These results suggest that NRG-1 is an important factor contributing to divergent species MLSP through its role in maintaining neuronal integrity. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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