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Zurich, Switzerland

Barry Callebaut is the world's largest cocoa grinder.It was created in 1996 through the merging of the Belgian chocolate producer Callebaut and the French company Cacao Barry. It is currently based in Zürich, Switzerland, and operates in 30 countries worldwide. It was created in its present form by the German immigrant Klaus Johann Jacobs.Its customers include multinational and national branded consumer goods manufacturers and artisanal users of chocolate .In addition to manufacture, the company undertakes research into chocolate recipes: for example, in recent years it has launched tooth-friendly chocolate, probiotic chocolate, chocolate with a high level of antioxidants , and "rebalanced" chocolate, which has an improved nutritional profile. These improvements are based under Callebaut's innovation strategy. Health and Wellness, experience and indulgence, and convenience. Wikipedia.

Papalexandratou Z.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Camu N.,Barry Callebaut | Falony G.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | De Vuyst L.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50. °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic acid concentrations in the pulp and the beans. To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Papalexandratou Z.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Lefeber T.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Bahrim B.,Barry Callebaut | Lee O.S.,Ong Chong Lim Plantation Sdn. Bhd. | And 2 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H.opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A.pasteurianus were responsible for it. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

De Graef V.,Ghent University | Depypere F.,Ghent University | Minnaert M.,Barry Callebaut | Dewettinck K.,Ghent University
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Liquid chocolate exhibits a non-Newtonian flow behavior that is conventionally characterized by a yield stress and plastic viscosity. In general, yield stress is determined by shear rheology experiments and the data are plotted as viscosity as a function of shear stress or shear stress as a function of shear rate. For the shear stress-shear rate plot, a frequently used approach to estimate the yield stress is to fit the data to one of several established models, with the Casson model being the most popular. Even though ICA (former IOCCC) recommendation is not to use the Casson model, it is still frequently applied. With the Casson model, a good fit to the experimental data for the shear rate ranging from 5s-1 to 60s-1 is realized. However, this model is unable to resolve real differences between chocolate samples that manifest at shear rate values below 5s-1. In this study, oscillatory rheology was applied and the stress at the end of the linear viscoelastic region (LVR) was taken as an estimate for the yield stress. This method was shown to be sensitive to fat content, emulsifier concentration and type of emulsifier. Furthermore, oscillatory rheology was found to be capable to capture differences in yield stress of chocolates that were not differentiated using the Casson model fitting approach. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lefeber T.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Papalexandratou Z.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Gobert W.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Camu N.,Barry Callebaut | De Vuyst L.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Barry Callebaut | Date: 2013-05-20

The invention relates to acidified cocoa nibs, wherein the nibs comprise at least 20 mg/g of polyphenols, preferably more than 30 mg/g of polyphenols, most preferably from 40 to 60 mg/g of polyphenols, cocoa refiner or expeller flakes, liquor, cakes, and cocoa powder obtainable from the nibs and a process for producing cocoa-derived material, comprising the steps of: (i) treating cocoa nibs obtained from beans or seeds which have a higher polyphenol content than fermented cocoa beans with an acid; and (ii) optionally drying the nibs.

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